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. 26, 1599.9 3 726,36, 2058,5 25 1366,38, 2220,0 65 3062,410, - 2--2 2878,5 1664, 512, 3536,1 269,66, 3267,7 3 871,612 3919,0 l3 373,78 3909,9 612 6 . 2815,108. 5153,8 122211 . . 5648,1410. 7049,2 1016 5903, ( /) 25 0 - HCl H2SO4 HNO3 NaOH 1000 0,5 110,02 15,73 1 55,51 26,28 28,07 13,11 2 27,75 48,82 41,92 20,08 3 18,50 56,85 48,99 24,30 28,4 13,88 61,20 54,06 26,98 34,5 11,10 64,05 58,03 28,73 37,6 9,25 -65,89 60,75 29,84 39,8 6,94 68,23 -64,60 31,12 41,10 5,55 69,49 67,03 31,84 42,15 3,70 70,99 70,17 32,46 42,20 2,78 71,78 71,50 32,67 42,30 1,85 72,59 72,68 32,76 40 1,39 73,02 73,09 32,75 50 1,11 73,28 73,34 32,74 42, . 75 0,74 73,65 73,68 32,74 100 0,56 73,85 73,97 32,75 42,200 0,28 74,20 74,94 32,80 42,500 0,11 74,52 76,73 32,90 42,700 0,079 74,61 77,57 32,94 1000 0,056 74,99 78,58 32,98 42,10000 0,0056 74,99 87,07 33,19 42,20000 0,0028 75,04 89,62 - 1/ 75,14 96,22 33,34 42, 25 ( ) (0), (0), Li/Li+ Li+ + = Li 3,045 Cd/Cd2+ Cd2+ + 2 = Cd 0,Rb/Rb+ Rb+ + = Rb 2,925 In/In3+ In3+ + 3 = In 0,K/K+ K+ + = K 2,925 Co/Co2+ Co2+ + 2 = Co 0,Cs/Cs+ Cs+ + = Cs 2,923 Ni/Ni2+ Ni2+ + 2 = Ni 0,Ba/Ba2+ Ba2+ + 2 = Ba 2,906 Mo/Mo3+ Mo3+ + 3 = Mo o,Sr/Sr2+ Sr2+ + 2 = Sr 2,890 Sn/Sn2+ Sn2+ + 2 = Sn 0,Ca/Ca2+ Ca2+ + 2 = Ca 2,866 Pb/Pb2+ Pb2+ + 2 = Pb 0,Na/Na+ Na+ + = Na 2,714 Fe/Fe3+ Fe3+ + 3 = Fe 0,La/La3+ La3+ + 3 = La 2,522 H2/H+ 2H+ + 2 = H2 0,Mg/Mg2+ Mg2+ + 2 = Mg 2,363 Ge/Ge2+ Ge2+ + 2 = Ge +0,Sc/Sc3+ Sc3+ + 3 = Sc 2,08 W/W3+ W3+ + 3 = W +0,Be/Be2+ Be2+ + 2 = Be 1,847 Sb/Sb3+ Sb3+ + 3 = Sb +0,Hf/Hf 4+ Hf 4+ + 4 = Hf 1,70 Bi/Bi3+ Bi3+ + 3 = Bi +0,Al/Al3+ Al3+ + 3 = Al -1,662 Cu/Cu2+ Cu2+ + 2 = Cu +0, . Ti/Ti3+ Ti3+ + 3 = Ti 1,628 Cu/Cu+ Cu+ + = Cu +0,Zr/Zr4+ Zr4+ + 4 = Zr 1,53 Hg/Hg22+ Hg22+ + 2 = 2Hg +0,Mn/Mn2+ Mn2+ + 2 = Mn 1,180 Ag/Ag+ Ag+ + = Ag +0,V/V2+ V2+ + 2 = V 1,175 Pd/Pd2+ Pd2+ + 2 = Pd +0,Nb/Nb3+ Nb3+ + 3 = Nb 1,10 Hg/Hg2+ Hg2+ + 2 = Hg +0,V/V3+ V3+ + 3 = V 0,87 Ir/Ir3+ Ir3+ + 3 = Ir +1,Zn/Zn2+ Zn2+ + 2 = Zn 0,763 Pt/Pt2+ Pt2+ + 2 = Pt +1,Cr/Cr3+ Cr3+ + 3 = Cr 0,744 Tl/Tl3+ Tl3+ + 3 = Tl +1,Ga/Ga3+ Ga3+ + 3 = Ga 0,52 Au/Au3+ Au3+ + 3 = Au +1,Fe/Fe2+ Fe2+ + 2 = Fe 0,440 Au/Au+ Au+ + = Au +1, () - 298 (0), (0), 1 2 3 Ag+ + = Ag +0,799 NO3 + 2H+ + = NO2()+ H2O +0,[Ag(CN)2] + = Ag + 2CN 0,290 NO3 + 3H++ 2 = HNO2+H2O +0,AgCl + = Ag + Cl +0,222 NO3 + 4H+ + 3 = NO + 2H2O +0,AgBr + = Ag + Br +0,073 NO3 + H2O+ 2 = NO2 + 2OH +0,Ag2S + 2 = Ag + S2- 0,7 HNO2 + H+ + = NO + H2O +1,2HNO2+ 4H++ 4 = N2O + 3H2O +1,Al3+ + 3 = A1 1,NO3+6H2O +8 =N4O +9OH 0,AlO2 + 2H2O + 3 = Al + 4OH 2,Ni2+ + 2 = Ni 0,[AlF6]3- +3 = Al + 6 F- 0,Ni(OH)3 + = Ni(OH)2 + OH +0,As + 3 H+ + 3 = AsH3 0,240 H3PO4 + 2H++ 2 = H3PO3 + 2H2O 0,AsO43 + 2H2O + 2 = AsO2 + 4OH 0,H3AsO4 +2H+ + 2 = HAsO2 +2H2O +0,Pb2+ + 2 = Pb 0,Au3+ + 3 = Au +1,Pb4+ + 2 = Pb2+ +1,Au+ + = Au +1,PbO2 + H2O + 2 = PbO + 2 OH +0,[Au(CN)2] + = Au + 2 CN 0,PbO2 + 4H+ +SO42 +2 = +1,Bi 3+ + 3 = Bi +0,PbSO4+2H2O BiO3 + 6 H+ + 2 = Bi + 3 H2O +1,PbSO4 + 2 = Pb + SO42 0,PbO2 + 4 H+ + 2 = Pb2+ + 2 H2O +1, . O2 + 2 H2O + 4 = 4 OH +0,O2 + 2 H+ + 2 = H2O2 +0,Br2 () + 2 = 2 Br +1,O2 + 4 H+ + 4 = 2 H2O +1,HBrO + H+ + 2 = Br + H2O +1,H2O2 + 2 H+ + 2 = 2 H2O +1,BrO + H2O + 2 = Br + 2 OH +0,H2O2 + 2 OH + 2 = O2 + 2 H2O +0,BrO3 + 6 H+ + 6 = Br + 3 H2O +1,O2 + 4 H+ (10-7) + 4 = 2 H2O +0,BrO3 + 6 H+ + 5 = Br2() + 3 H2O +1,O3 + 2 H+ + 2 = O2 + H2O +2,BrO3 + 3 H2O + 6 = Br + 6 OH +0,O3 + H2O + 2 = O2 + 2 OH +1,O + H2O + 2 = 2 OH +1,Cl2 () + 2 = 2 Cl +1,HclO + H+ + 2 = Cl + H2O +1,HclO + H+ + = Cl2 + H2O +1,S + 2 = S2 0,ClO + H2O + 2 = Cl + 2 OH +0,S + 2 H+ + 2 = H2S +0,ClO2 + H2O + 2 = ClO + 2 OH +0,S2O82 + 2 = 2 SO42 +2,ClO3 + 6 H+ + 6 = Cl + 3 H2O +1,SO42 + 4H+ +2 = H2SO3 +2H2O +0,ClO3 + 6 H+ + 5 = Cl2 + 3 H2O +1,SO42 + H2O + 2 = SO32 + 2OH 0,ClO3 + H2O + 2 = ClO2 + 2 OH +0,2SO42+10H+ +8 =S2O32 +5H2O +0,ClO4 + 2 H+ + 2 = ClO3 + H2O +1,SO42 +10H+ + 8 = H2S + 4H2O +0,ClO4 + 8 H+ + 8 = Cl + 4 H2O +1,SO42 + 8H+ + 6 = S + 4H2O +0,ClO4 + H2O + 2 = ClO3 + 2 OH +0,ClO4 + 4 H2O + 8 = Cl + 8 OH +0,Co2+ + 2 = Co 0,277 2SO32+3H2O+ 4= S2O32+6OH 0,Co3+ + = Co2+ +1,810 S2O62 + 4 H+ + 2 = 2H2SO3 0,Co(OH)3 + = Co(OH)2 + OH +0,2 H2SO3 + 4 H+ + 4 = S + 3 H2O +0,[Co(NH3)6]3+ + = [Co(NH3)6]2+ +0,1 S4O62 + 2 = S2O32 +0,Cr3+ + 3 = Cr 0,Cr3+ + = Cr2+ 0,CrO42 + 4H2O + 3 = Cr(OH)3 + 5OH 0,Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6 = 2Cr3+ + 7H2O +1,330 Se + 2 = Se2 0,Cu2+ + 2 = Cu +0,337 Se + 2 H+ + 2 = H2Se 0,Cu2+ + = Cu+ +0,153 SeO42 +4H+ +2 = H2SeO3+2H2O +1,Cu+ + = Cu +0,521 H2SeO3 + 4H+ + 4 = Se + 3H2O +0,[Cu(CN)2] + = Cu + 2 CN 0,2CO2 + 2H+ + 2 = H2C2O4 (.) 0,Sn2+ + 2 = Sn 0,Sn4+ + 2 = Sn2+ +0,F2 () + 2 = 2 F +2,F2 () + 2 H+ + 2 = 2 HF (p-p) +3, . Fe2+ + 2 = Fe 0,440 Hg22+ + 2 = 2 Hg +0,Fe3+ + 3 = Fe 0,036 Hg2+ + 2 = Hg +0,Fe3+ + = Fe2+ +0,771 2 Hg2+ + 2 = Hg22+ +0,Fe(OH)3 + = Fe(OH)2 + OH 0,56 Hg2Cl2 + 2 = 2 Hg + 2Cl- +0,[Fe(CN)6]3 + = [Fe(CN)6]4 +0,360 (1.1) FeO42 + 8 H+ + 3 = Fe3+ + 4 H2O +1,700 Hg2Cl2 + 2 = 2 Hg + 2Cl- +0,[(1-)=1] I2 () + 2 = 2 I Te + 2 = Te2 0,+0,HIO + H+ + 2 = I + H2O Te + 2 H+ + 2 = H2Te 0,+0,HIO + H+ + = I2 + H2O +1,Ti 3+ + 3 = Ti 1,IO + H2O + 2 = I + 2 OH +0,Ti 3+ + = Ti2+ 0,IO3 + 6 H+ + 6 = I + 3 H2O +1,TiO2+ + 2 H+ + = Ti3+ + H2O +0,IO3 + 6 H+ + 5 = I2 + 3 H2O +1,IO3 + 3 H2O + 6 = I + 6 OH +0,Mn2+ + 2 = Mn 1,180 Tl + + = Tl 0,MnO4 + = MnO42 +0,564 Tl 3+ + 2 = Tl + +1,MnO4 + 2 H2O + 3 = MnO2 + 4 OH +0,V3+ + = V2+ 0,MnO42 + 2 H2O + 2 = MnO2 + VO2+ + 2H+ + = VO2+ + 2H2O +1,OH +0,Zn2+ + 2 = Zn 0,MnO4 + 8 H+ + 5 = Mn2+ + 4 H2O ZnO22 + 2 H2O + 2 = Zn + 2 OH 1,MnO4 + 4 H+ + 3 = MnO2 + 2 H2O +1,MnO2 + 4 H+ + 3 = Mn2+ + 2 H2O +1,+1, , .

29.10. 2009. 6084/16. . . . 13,25.

100 . 1200.

432027, , . , 32.

, 432027, . , . . 32.

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