TЕКСТ Б Lord of the Flies To me Lord of the Flies is a profoundly true book. Its happy offence lies in its masterful, dramatic and powerful narration of the human condition, with which a peruser of the daily newspaper should already be familiar. The ultimate purpose of the novel is not to leave its readers in a state of paralytic horror. The intention is certainly to impress upon them man’s, any man’s miraculous ingenuity in perpetrating evil; but it is also to impress upon them the gift of a saving recognition which, to Golding, is apparently the only saving recognition. An orthodox phrase for this recognition is the “conviction of sin”, an expression which grates on many contemporary ears, and yet one which the author seemingly does not hold in derision.
Lecturing at Johns Hopkins University in the spring of 1962, Golding said that Lord of the Flies is a study of sin. And he is a person who uses words with precision. Sin is not to be confused with crime, which is transgression of human law; it is instead a transgression of divine law. Nor does Golding believe that the Jacks and Rogers are going to be reconstructed through social legislation eventuating in some form of utopianism – he and Conrad’s Mr. Kurtz are at one in their evaluation of societal laws which, they agree, exercise external restraint but have at best a slight effect on the human heart. Golding is explicit: “The theme [of Lord of the Flies],” he writes, “is an attempt to trace the defects of society back to the defects of human nature. The moral is that the shape of a society must depend on the ethical nature of the individual and not on any political system however apparently logical or respectable.” William Golding’s story is as old as the written word. The figure of the Lord of the Flies, of Beelzebub, is one of the primary archetypes of the Western world.
The novel is the parable of fallen man. But it does not close the door on that man;
it entreats him to know himself and his Adversary, for he cannot do combat against an unrecognized force, especially when it lies within him.
Словарь masterful – уверенный, властный contemporary – современный powerful – могущественный влиятельный to hold in derision – насмехаться narration – рассказ, повествование precision – точность, четкость, аккуратhuman condition – состояние человека ность peruser – человек, читающий внимательно confuse – смешивать, спутывать to be familiar – быть знакомым transgression – проступок, нарушение, ultimate purpose – конечная цель грех state – состояние human law – человеческий закон horror – ужас social legislation – общественное законоintention – намерение дательство to impress upon – внушать, внедрять divine – божественный miraculous – чудотворный, сверхъестест- evaluation – оценка, определение венный agree – соглашаться ingenuity – изобретательность, искус- external restraint – внешняя сдержанность ность, мастерство (самообладание) to perpetrate evil – совершать зло explicit – ясный, высказанный до конца gift – дар, подарок theme – тема recognition – узнавание, признание, одоб- respectable – уважаемый рение Beelzebub – Вельзевул, дьявол, сатана orthodox – ортодоксальный, правоверный, parable – притча, иносказание общепринятый adversary – враг, противник, соперник conviction of sin – сознание греховности to combat against – сражаться, бороться it grates on my ear – это мне режет слух против Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте синонимы к следующим словам:
deeply, final, desire, of course, estimation, insignificant, enemy, to struggle.
Упражнение 2. Скажите, что говорилось в тексте о следующих фактах и явлениях: the ultimate purpose, conviction of sin, Johns Hopkins University, divine law, Beelzebub, fallen man.
Обобщение лексического и грамматического материала Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения с английского языка на русский.
1) he was a respectable married woman. It was hard to believe that she had perpetrated such evil. 2) His masterful and powerful narration impressed upon me the conviction of sin. 3) Only after they had discussed everything, the intention of the writer became explicit. 4) Every prisoner will have understood by the time he is released that human law shouldn’t be confused with divine law. 5) He was familiar with the state of horror. He had had it so many times! 6) His ultimate purpose is evaluation of contemporary human condition. 7) The idea is not explicit in the parable. Perhaps we have misunderstood something in the narration. 8) His miraculous ingenuity has helped him to combat against his adversaries. 9) Transgression against custom must be punished. 10) He has made the last attempt to talk her into going with him.
СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ Образование существительных с помощью суффикса –er Суффикс –er является самым продуктивным среди агентивных суффиксов. Сочетается чаще всего с основами глаголов, существительных и прилагательных и образует существительные, обозначает:
1) лицо, занимающееся каким-либо видом деятельности, в том числе профессиональным: worker – рабочий;
2) принадлежность к какой-либо местности: villager – житель деревни;
ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Задание 1. Сделайте устный перевод текста А. Переведите и выучите слова и выражения, данные после него.
Teкст A Analysing Golding’s Style of Writing After the boys have elected Ralph as leader by “this toy of voting”, Jack, Simon and Ralph begin exploring the mountain. This section of the novel is crucial, for it is here that Golding gives his abbreviated ironical summary of the romantic view of human progress. The passage needs analysis in depth (impossible in an article of this length), but it should be pointed out that Golding has chosen as explorers those who have dominated the history of man: the totalitarian, the parliamentarian and the mystic-poet. And, as is clear from the text, Simon is the realist of the triumvirate. When the boys examine the bushes on the mountain, Simon accepts them for what they are. Ralph and Jack are concerned only with how the buds can be used. That Golding’s figure of religious faith accepts reality as it is provides an interesting comment on the limited approaches of the parliamentarian and the dictator.
As we follow Simon through the novel, we discover that he is the mystic who separates himself from the others to ponder the mysteries of existence. Simon is the carpenter who continues building the shelters after the other boys have abandoned the work; Simon feeds the “littluns”; Simon encounters the beast in all its loathsomeness and does not succumb to the beast’s temptation to despair. This encounter is the boy’s Gethsemane: he comes face to face with evil, recognizes it for what it is, and, despite the agony and horror of the meeting, he is neither defeated nor intimidated by it. Immediately after he recovers consciousness, he ascends the mountain to free the dead pilot, whose parachute lines have become entangled in the rocks. In other words, Simon climbs the mountain to free “fallen man”.
He returns then to the boys to announce the good news; they need no longer fear the beast. But the group will not listen to him. Like the One in whose place he stands symbolically, Simon is murdered during a religious festival – the diabolic liturgy of the pig. His death occurs while the island world cowers under the lash of a gigantic storm. And it is only after Simon has actually died that the dead man in the parachute is finally freed and washed out to sea, the sea which is Golding’s symbol of mystery, not chaos.
Finally, Simon has his symbolic hour of glorification: his body is surrounded by “moonbeam-bodied creatures with fiery eyes”; gleaming in this unearthly phosphorescence, he is carried gently out to sea. And it is difficult not to recognize the hint of a resurrection motif here, for the pattern is that of the hero carried through the waters to his apotheosis.
to elect smb as leader to be concerned with to abandon work to explore religious faith to come face to face with evil crucial to provide to recover consciousness abbreviated ironical sum- limited approaches to ascend the mountain mary to follow smb through the to announce to need analysis in depth novel to be washed out to sea to be pointed out the mysteries of existence Задание 2. Сделайте письменный перевод текста Б.
Teкст Б Word Meaning For much of the history of semantic studies, and still to a considerable extent today, the investigation of meaning has been based on the relationships of reference and denotation. Certainly meaning includes the relations between utterances and parts of utterances (e.g. words) and the world outside; and reference and denotation are among such relations. But for the purposes of linguistics it is desirable to deal with meaning by a more comprehensive treatment.
At the outset it must be realized that the meaningful activity of speaking consists immediately not of words as such, but of utterances or stretches of speech consisting of sentences and delimited by pauses, silence, or the speech of other people. Words are part of the material into which utterances may be analyzed, and the stock from which speakers may be said to put their utterances together;
but they are not themselves actual discrete stretches of utterance, except in the case of the limited number of utterances consisting of one word only. And, of course, they are not all separated in speech by pauses in the way that in texts printed on roman alphabets words are separated by spaces.
Utterances are meaningful, and a child learns the meaning of many words by hearing them in other people’s utterances and practicing them himself. This process goes on all our lives, and we learn new words and extend and increase our knowledge of the words we already know, as we hear and see them in fresh utterances and used slightly differently from the ways which we are accustomed to. The meaning of a word, therefore, may be considered as the way it is used as a part of different sentences. What the dictionary does is to try and summarize for each word the way or ways it is used in the sort of sentences in which it is found in the language.
The potential sentences of any language that may be uttered and understood by a speaker of it are infinite in number, but they are formed from the total stock of words known to the speaker at any time. A speaker’s word stock is always variable, but it may be regarded as fixed at any given point of time. Words, therefore, are, in general, convenient units about which to state meanings, and no harm is done provided it is borne in mind that words have meanings by virtue of their employment in sentences, most of which contain more than one word. The meaning of a sentence is not to be thought of as a sort of summation of the meanings of its component words taken individually. With many words particular meanings or uses are only found when they are used in conjunction with other words, and these are often scarcely deducible from their other uses apart from such combinations. The following phrases may be given as good examples: cold war, feather-weight (boxing), wildcat strike (unofficial strike), white noise (acoustic engineering).
Reference and denotation are clearly a part of the meaning of many words in all languages. The many problems arising about the nature of these relations have been the subject of much philosophical discussion and cannot and need not be treated at length here. It suffices to point out that by the use in sentences of certain words one is able to pick out from the environment of speaker and hearer particular items, features, processes, and qualities, draw attention to them, give or elicit further information about them. All these things can be made the objects of action and speculation, and, most importantly, recalled from past experience and anticipated in the future provided only that the words used have had such associations in the previous experience of speaker and hearer.
But the relationship between the word and that to which it may be said to refer is not a simple one. Proper names (John, Mary, etc.) refer to individuals as single individuals, however there may be many people referred to like that. Words like boy, girl, etc. refer to an indefinitely large class of individuals by virtue of their being grouped together in some respect. In the same way, climb, fly, swim, and walk refer to four different types of bodily movement in space. In the strict terminology of logic denotation is sometimes used in a specific and technical sense, but in general usage the term is more loosely made equivalent to reference.
If it is accepted that statements of word meanings in descriptive linguistics are simply summaries of the ways words are used in sentences by speakers at a particular time, but, certainly, the meaning of any word is casually the product of continuous changes in its antecedent meanings or uses, and in many cases it is the collective product of generations of cultural history.
Обобщение и повторение изученного материала Задание 3. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя грамматический и лексический материал раздела III.
1) Мы положили в салат (salad) все необходимые ингредиенты. 2) К этому времени картофель уже впитает оливковое масло. 3) Теперь мы научились обходиться без всяких гастрономических чудес, хотя до второй мировой войны наша страна ввозила разные продукты из-за границы.
4) Эта компания включает в себя тысячи маленьких ресторанчиков по всему миру. Здесь не используют сложные рецепты. Они готовят очень скучную пищу и маскируют ее простой вкус причудливыми соусами. Хотя все продукты местные, вы не найдете здесь английских, шведских, испанских национальных блюд (dishes). 5) Вы ищете ресторан, в котором подают вкусную и изысканную еду и хорошее вино Приходите к нам. Вам обязательно (certainly) понравится наше фирменное блюдо (speciality) – ланкаширский горячий горшочек. 6) Я был в этом ресторане. Я ел бифштекс с макаронами и пудинг из хлеба с маслом. 7) Ты сумела приготовить грибной пирог сама 8) После того, как ее мужа отправили в тюрьму за долги, ее сын стал единственным лучом надежды для нее. 9) Со времен второй мировой войны торговля стала оказывать основное влияние на экономику Исландии. Исландия быстро оправилась от бедности (poverty), в которой находилась на протяжении всей своей истории. 10) Какой странный вкус! – Ты когда-нибудь раньше пробовал что-либо подобное Задание 4. Подготовьте устные сообщения на темы: 1) “Food,” 2) “My favourite Russian Writer.” Задание 5. Прочитайте газетную статью на английском языке в рамках общественно-политической тематики. Подготовьте краткое изложение статьи с выражением собственного мнения к прочитанному.
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ 1. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. Лексикология английского языка. – М.: Дрофа, 2001.
2. Голицынский Ю.Б. Великобритания: Пособ. по страноведению.– СПб.: КАРО, 2002.
3. Дроздова Т.Ю., Берестова А.И., Маилова В.Г. English Grammar: Reference and Practice. – СПб: Химера, 2001.
4. Колкер Я.М., Устинова Е.С., Еналиева Т.М. Практическая методика обучения иностранному языку. – М.: Академия, 2000.
5. Крылова И.П., Гордон Е.М. Грамматика современного английского языка. – М.: Университет, 2001.
6. Жималенкова Т.М., Мыльцева Н.А. Универсальный справочник по грамматие английского языка. – М.: Глосса, 1995.
7. Azar B. Fundamentals of English Grammar. Prentice Hall Regents, 1992.
8. Baugh A.C. & Cable T. A History of the English Language. London: Routledge, 1993.
9. Coskren T. M. Is Golding Calvinistic / Golding W. Lord of the Flies. A Perigee Book. New York, 1988.
10. Dickens C. Oliver Twist. Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1992.
11. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Pearson Education Limited, 2000.
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