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to make the reader feel smth – донести до the brilliance of a word – яркость, великочитателя чувство чего-л, заставить чи- лепие слова тателя почувствовать что-л. to tell almost all – говорить, передавать unfortunate policemen – несчастные поли- практически все Упражнение 1. Составьте словосочетания, совмещая слова из абзацев А и Б. С полученными сочетаниями придумайте предложения, близкие к тексту.

А. Writing, struggling, filled with, right, try, brilliance, unfortunate, Monday.

Б. Morning, word, of a word, writer, in pencil, writing, policemen, to control.

Упражнение 2. Закончите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. When a writer creates something he tries to find _.

2. The author says that struggling writers usually use a lot of details and words because _.

3. The difference between good and bad writing is _.

4. Trying to make the reader feel the shock Alice feels Dahl _.

5. The author notes the brilliance of the words _.

6. We can feel quite well the state Alice was in due to _.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is your favourite book And writer 2. Why do you like it (him/her) 3. What kind of books attract your attention: a) that are easy to read; b) classical books and authors; c) books with exciting plot. Support your position.

4. What marks the master according to the text 5*. What can you say about different authors’ style of writing 6*. What are other things except those mentioned in the text that mark a perfect writer Обобщение лексического и грамматического материала Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский.

1) Какие несчастные полицейские! Целый день они с трудом пытаются разобрать эти записи, сделанные карандашом. 2) Почему ты пишешь с наклоном влево Это плохая привычка. 3) Когда мы составляли конспект (to make a summary), мы использовали много сокращений. 4) Сейчас ты ведешь себя весьма безжалостно. 5) Ребенок спокойно резал дорогую книгу, когда вошла мама. 6) Он обладает талантом, свойственным мастеру своего дела. 7) Люди сейчас активно борются за свои права в различных уголках мира.

8) Великолепие этих слов говорит практически все о писателе. 9) Это действительно имеет значение, о чем я думала, когда ты ушел от меня 10) Ты приклеиваешь страницы книги клейкой лентой Библиотекари это запрещают.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ Конверсия Конверсия – это бессуфиксальный способ словообразования, представляющий собой переход одной части речи в другую, при котором не происходит каких-либо изменений в правописании, например, aim – цель, to aim – стремиться.

Упражнение 5. Переведите пары слов: to struggle – a struggle, to tape – a tape, pale (adj) – to pale, to show – a show, cool (adj) – to cool, a market – to market, a detail – to detail, to do – a do, to make – a make.

Упражнение 6. Определите, от каких частей речи были образованы следующие слова: to eye, to face, to poison, to word, to present, to page, to can, to toy, to tidy, to hand, to comfort, to water, to yellow, to record, to back, to honeymoon, to dog, to monkey, a walk, to cage, to bottle, a move, a cut, to pencil, to elbow, to nurse, to cook, to comment, a catch, to milk, a cheat, right, daily, poor, to grey, to white.

Упражнение 7. Составьте пары предложений, используя следующие слова в качестве различных частей речи:

a) cook, telephone, hand, nose, head; b)* daily, monkey, pocket, rat, shoulder.

Упражнение 8. Найдите в словаре пары слов, имеющих одинаковое правописание, но являющихся разными частями речи, и составьте с ними предложения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Упражнение 9*. Перефразируйте выделенные слова в следующих предложениях.

1) Have you milked the cat yet 2) When I leave my house for a long time I ask my neighbour to water the flowers. 3) Who stars in the film 4) She fingered the cloth and liked that it was very soft. 5) Don’t finger at that man. It’s impolite.

6) We breakfasted in silence. 7) I used to fish a lot when I was young. 8) These people are constantly dogging me.

ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Задание 1. Сделайте устный перевод текста A. Переведите и выучите слова и выражения, данные после него.

Текст A Oliver Twist One of Dickens’ most celebrated novels, Oliver Twist was Dickens’ second overwhelmingly successful book, following the publication of Pickwick Papers. It contains many of the classical themes of his best writing, such as the plight of orphans in Victorian England; the grinding poverty of that period endured by so many people, and the working of the New Poor Law; and the slow triumph of good nature and strong character over would-be suborners, the lures of temptation, organized persecution and the ravages of fear, desperation and menace. The literary pedigree of Oliver Twist goes back in direct line to the Gothic novel and the picaresque novels of the eighteenth century, most notably those of Smollett and Fielding, which are known to have been among the young Dickens’ favourite reading.

The book contains some of Dickens’ most famous characters, many of which have entered the language as exemplars of certain types, most notably: the exploited child – Oliver Twist, himself – who dares to ask for more; the tyrant Bumble, the parish beadle; the diabolic gang leader, Fagin; the burglar, Bill Sikes; Sikes’ mistress, Nancy; and the impudent young pickpocket, ‘the Artful Dodger’. The slow nemesis of Fagin’s evil gang takes the reader through a tale of malevolence and skullduggery to emerge, through benevolence, at a satisfactory conclusion.

The first instalment of Oliver Twist appeared in Bentley’s Miscellany for February 1837, under Dickens’ pseudonym ‘Boz’. The first complete edition of Oliver Twist, or the Parish Boy’s Progress appeared in three volumes in 1838, being published by Richard Bentley of New Burlington Street, London, with whom Dickens was often in dispute. It is a tribute to Dickens’ literary powers and abilities that he managed to write the first instalments of Oliver Twist at the same time as the last parts of Pickwick Papers, while the last parts of Oliver Twist were being written simultaneously with the first instalments of Nicholas Nickelby.

classical theme literary pedigree to be in dispute grinding poverty to go back a tribute to to endure gothic novel at the same time lures of temptations picaresque novel simultaneously ravages of fear exemplars of certain type desperation to take the reader through menace to appear in three volumes Задание 2. Сделайте письменный перевод текста Б.

Tекст Б Descriptive, Historical, and Comparative Linguistics General linguistics includes a number of related subjects involved in the study of language, and each may be considered both from the point of view of theory and from that of its actual operations. The most important subdivisions of the subject are descriptive linguistics, historical linguistics, and comparative linguistics.

Descriptive linguistics, as its title suggests, is concerned with the description and analysis of the ways in which a language operates and is used by a given set of speakers at a given time. This time may be the present, and in the case of languages as yet unwritten or only recently given written form it will inevitably be the present, as there is no other way of knowing any earlier stages of them, though there are methods by which certain facts about such earlier stages may be inferred. The time may equally well be the past, where adequate written records are available, as in the case of the so-called dead languages like Ancient Greek and (except in a few special circumstances) Latin, and in the case of earlier stages of languages still spoken (e.g. Old English). The line between these two categories of language is not easily drawn; in part it depends on the point of view from which they are looked at. It also depends on the literary prestige attached to Ancient Greek and Latin and the distance that separates our knowledge of them and of the early stages of the languages that are, in fact divergent continuations of them, Modern Greek, and French, Italian, Spanish, probably justifies the distinction.

What is more important is that the descriptive study of a language, and of any part of a language, present or past, is concerned exclusively with that language at the period involved and not, as a descriptive study, with what may have preceded it or may follow it. The descriptive study is not concerned with the description of other languages at the same time. Descriptive linguistics is often regarded as the major part of general linguistics. Be that as it may, it is certainly the fundamental aspect of the study of language, as it underlies and is presupposed (or ought to be presupposed) by the other two subdivisions.

Historical linguistics is the study of the developments in languages in the course of time, of the ways in which languages change from period to period, and of the causes and results of such changes, both outside the languages and within them. This sort of study, whether undertaken in general terms or concentrated on a particular language area (e.g. English from Old English to the present day), must properly be based on at least partial descriptions of two or more stages of the continuous language series being treated.

The terms synchronic and diachronic are in general use to distinguish respectively linguistic statements describing a stage of a language as a selfcontained means of communication, at a given time, during which it is arbitrarily assumed that no changes are taking place, and statements relating to the changes that take place in languages during the passage of years.

Historical linguistics might from one point of view be regarded as a special case of comparative linguistics, the third subdivision of general linguistics. In comparative linguistics one is concerned with comparing from one or more points of view (and the possibilities of this are very wide) two or more different languages, and, more generally, with the theory and techniques applicable to such comparisons. In historical linguistics the comparison is limited to languages which may be regarded as successive stages of the speech of a continuing speech community differing from one period to another as the result of the cumulative effects of gradual changes, for the most part imperceptible within a single generation.

Comparative linguistics is principally divided into comparison based on or made with a view to inferring historical relationships among particular languages, and comparison based on resemblances of features between different languages without any historical considerations being involved.

Обобщение и повторение изученного материала Задание 3. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя лексический и грамматический материал раздела II.

1) Чарльз Диккенс родился в семье клерка. 2) Мы сейчас переезжаем в новую квартиру. 3) Его слова преследуют меня. Боюсь, остаток моей жизни я буду помнить их. 4) В детстве у моего брата было слабое здоровье.

Он пошел в школу в возрасте 8 лет. Но теперь он хорошо учится в школе.

5) Диккенс влюбился в Марию Биднелл и надеялся жениться. В это время его карьера процветала. Он был успешным писателем. 6) Они встретились и полюбили друг друга, когда он уже разводился со своей женой. 7) По стандартам нашего времени компьютер – не роскошь (luxury), а первая необходимость. 8) Его дядя был арестован за долги и оправлен в долговую тюрьму. Вскоре он был освобожден как (as) несостоятельный должник.

9) Я вижу, что твой бизнес небезопасен. Твоя фирма не переживет следующего кризиса. Ты разоришь себя. И тогда никто не захочет помочь тебе, кроме меня. 10) Боюсь, что эта душевная травма глубоко повлияет на его мировоззрение. 11) Раньше он клеил этикетки на бутылки, теперь он директор завода. 12) Его здоровье постоянно ухудшается. У него уже был один удар, когда он поднимался по лестнице. Боюсь, он может умереть после второго удара. 13) Если ты хочешь научиться стенографии, тебе потребуется год или два. 14) Самый первый парламент был учрежден в Исландии.

15) Тебя наняли делать черную работу.

Задание 4. Подготовьте устные сообщения на темы: 1) “My Favourite British Writer,” 2) “My Favourite Book.” Задание 5. Прочитайте газетную статью на английском языке в рамках общественно-политической тематики. Подготовьте краткое изложение статьи с выражением собственного мнения к прочитанному.

РАЗДЕЛ III Текст А. “In Search of Good English Food” Грамматика. Времена группы Perfect Active Текст Б. “Lord of the Flies” Словообразование. Образование существительных с помощью суффикса -er TЕКСТ A In Search of Good English Food How come it is so difficult to find English food in England In Greece you eat Greek food, in France French food, in Italy Italian food, but in England, in any High Street in the land, it is easier to find Indian and Chinese restaurants than English ones. In London you can eat Thai, Portuguese, Turkish, Japanese, Russian, Polish, Swiss, Swedish, Spanish, and Italian – but where are the English restaurants Why has this happened What is wrong with the cooks of Britain that they prefer cooking pasta to potatoes Why do they now like cooking in wine and olive oil But perhaps it is a good thing. After all, this is the beginning of the 21st century and we can get ingredients from all over the world in just a few hours.

The British have in fact always imported food from abroad. From the time of the Roman invasion foreign trade was a major influence on British cooking. English kitchens absorbed ingredients from all over the world – chickens, rabbits, apples and tea. All of these and more were successfully incorporated into British dishes. Another important influence on British cooking was of course the weather. The good old British rain gives us rich soil and green grass, and means that we are able to produce some of the finest varieties of meat, fruit and vegetables, which don’t need fancy sauces or complicated recipes to disguise their taste.

However, World War II changed everything. Wartime women had to forget years of British cooking, learn to do without foreign imports, and ration their use of home-grown food. Britain never managed to recover from the wartime attitude to food. We began to believe that British food was boring, and we searched the world for sophisticated, new dishes. The British people became tourists at their own dining tables and in the restaurants of their land! This is a tragedy! Surely food is as much a part of our culture as our landscape, our language, and our literature. Nowadays, cooking British food is like speaking a dead language. It is almost as bizarre as having a conversation in Anglo-Saxon English! However, there is still one small ray of hope. British pubs are often the best places to eat well and cheaply in Britain, and they also try to serve tasty British food.

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