1) Найдите в тексте “Dialects of English” и выпишите абстрактные существительные со следующими суффиксами: -(a)tion, -ity(ety), -ment, -ness.
2) Выделите суффиксы у следующих абстрактных существительных и переведите слова на русский язык: correctness, declaration, creation, thoroughness, symbolism, piracy, alpinism, freedom, commandership, replacement, productivity, motherhood, characterization, friendliness, amazement, curiosity, vocalism, wizardry, bribery, immaculacy, specialism.
3) Образуйте абстрактные существительные от следующих слов и переведите их: consider, hard, happy, insistent, operate, boy, punish, journal, wise, brother, bake, treacherous, indifferent, desperate, agree, calculate, master, conventional, effective, member.
ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Задание 1. Сделайте устный перевод текста А. Переведите и выучите слова и выражения, данные после него.
Текст А Class Dialects and ‘Standard Languages’ A dialect, or some closely similar group of dialects enjoying prestige as the speech of educated people of the capital city or of some other socially respected group, is often designated ‘the standard language’, ‘standard English’, ‘standard French’, and so forth; and the pronunciation characteristic of this type of English has been called ‘Received Pronunciation’, or ‘R.P.’. The use and consequent spread of ‘standard languages’ outwards and downwards in the social scale, as it were, is often encouraged in modern states by their employment in official broadcasts, as the approved types of speech for school instruction, and in other similar ways.
The term standard language must not mislead. Such forms of speech are descriptively dialects, just like any other dialect, to be described and delimited on just the same criteria as the less socially and officially favoured ‘regional’ dialects.
It is a popular assumption on the part of those speaking standard dialects that other dialects, especially those spoken by groups lacking any social prestige or recognition, are both ‘incorrect’ and more or less formless, lacking a true grammar or precise means of discourse. Epithets such as ‘ugly’ and the like are freely employed with reference to the pronunciation of such dialects. But needless to say, the linguist faithful to the principles of objective scientific statement must abjure all such modes of expression and value judgements, aesthetic and quasi-moralistic, as outside his field. The statement that certain utterances are ‘incorrect’ (e.g. we ain’t done nothing) is to the linguist equivalent to the statement that in a corresponding situation the speaker of the standard dialect would say something else (we haven’t done anything). Reactions to other people’s speech is valuable evidence of part of the social function of language within a community. Any claims for these dialects being better organized than others do not bear examination.
The linguist, whatever his private feelings on these may be, has a greater task.
His task is to describe and analyse the phenomena of languages (and of the dialects within them) as he finds them, and his techniques and procedures are devised for this purpose. He has no concern with preferring one class dialect over another, or with prescribing how people should use their language. Description, not prescription, is his work.
similar group of dialects to encourage to lack to enjoy prestige official broadcasts means of discourse socially respected group approved types of speech objective scientific statement to designate to mislead claim standard English descriptively to claim Received Pronunciation descriptive to concern with consequent to describe prescription spread of a language description social scale social prestige Задание 2. Сделайте письменный перевод текстов Б и В.
Текст Б General Linguistics as the Study of Language General linguistics may be defined as the science of language. As with other branches of knowledge and scientific study, such a definition involves the subject in certain relations with other disciplines and sciences outside itself, and in subdivision into different branches of the subject comprised within it. A subject like general linguistics, in common with most other subjects of systematic study, is not static. Viewpoints, including some of quite fundamental importance, may change or receive different degrees of emphasis in the course of years. No book can honestly pretend to deal with the subject in a way that will both be accepted in all respects by every recognized scholar in the field and remain unaltered for all time.
General linguistics is concerned with human language as a universal and recognizable part of human behaviour, perhaps one of the most essential to human life as we know it, and one of the most far-reaching of human capabilities in relation to the whole span of mankind’s achievements. Needless to say, there is no ‘general language’ as the specific subject-matter of linguistics other than and apart from the numerous and so far uncounted different languages spoken in the world. But the general linguist, in the sense of the specialist is not as such involved with any one or more of them to a greater extent than with any others. As an impractical ideal he would know something about every language; this is, of course, impossible, and in practice most linguists concentrate on a limited number of languages including their native one, the number of languages studied, and the depth of knowledge acquired of each, varying by personal factors from one linguist to another.
Language in all its forms and manifestations, that is all the languages of the world and all the different uses to which in the various circumstances of mankind they are put, constitutes the field of the linguist. He seeks a scientific understanding of the place of language in human life, and of the ways in which it is organized to fulfil the needs it serves and the functions it performs. Several of the subjects he has within his purview and several of the questions to which he seeks answers correspond to long-established divisions of the study of foreign languages and of the institutionalized study of one’s own language.
Текст В The Indo-European Family The languages thus brought into relationship by descent or progressive differentiation from a parent speech are conveniently called a family of languages. Various names have been used to designate this family. In books written a century ago the term Aryan was commonly employed. It has now been generally abandoned and when found today is used in a more restricted sense to designate the languages of the family located in India and the plateau of Iran. A more common term is IndoGermanic, which is the most usual designation among German philologists, but it is open to the objection of giving undue emphasis to the Germanic languages. The term now most widely employed is Indo-European, suggesting more clearly the geographical extent of the family. The parent tongue from which the Indo-European languages have sprung had already become divided and scattered before the dawn of history. When we meet with the various peoples by whom these languages are spoken they have lost all knowledge of their former association. Consequently we have no written record of the common Indo-European language. By a comparison of its descendants, however, it is possible to form a fair idea of it and to make plausible reconstructions of its lexicon and inflections.
The surviving languages show various degrees of similarity to one another, the similarity bearing a more or less direct relationship to their geographical distribution. They accordingly fall into eleven principal groups: Indian, Iranian, Armenian, Hellenic, Albanian, Italic, Balto-Slavic, Germanic, Celtic, Hittite, and Tocharian. These are the branches of the Indo-European family tree.
Обобщение и повторение изученного материала Задание 3. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя лексический и грамматический материал раздела I.
1) Венеция расположена на побережье Адриатического моря. 2) Картинка будет разделена на маленькие части. Твоей задачей (task) будет собрать ее. 3) Общая площадь Канады – более 9 млн. кв. км. 4) Континент Австралии разделен на четыре топографических (topographic) региона. 5) Австралия производит шерсти больше, чем любая другая страна. 6) Новая Зеландия расположена на двух больших островах: Южном Острове и Северном Острове. 7) Новая Зеландия обладает умеренным (temperate) влажным и мягким морским климатом, без ярких изменений в температуре или количестве осадков в течение года. 8) До недавнего времени экономика Новой Зеландии основывалась (to be based) на скотоводстве и молочном фермерстве. В прошлом веке появились новые отрасли промышленности.
Однако все еще (still) существует преобладание фермерства над тяжелей промышленностью. 9) Большая часть территории Канады лежит в тех же широтах, что и Россия. 10) Здесь устье нашей реки. В прошлом веке эта река была судоходной, теперь – нет. 11) В своей молодости (youth) этот художник любил рисовать пейзажи. Теперь он рисует портреты (portraits). 12) В нашей республике химическая промышленность сконцентрирована в центральных и южных районах. 13) Здесь у нас будет поле с картошкой, а там – фруктовый сад. Земля здесь очень плодородная. 14) Лесные богатства нашей страны состоят из широколиственных, хвойных и смешанных лесов.
Задание 4. Подготовьте устные сообщения на темы: 1) “Great Britain”, 2) “Russia”.
РАЗДЕЛ II Текст А. “Charles Dickens” Грамматика. 1.Времена группы Continuous Active 2. Неопределенный артикль a (an) Текст Б. “Struggling for Better Writing” Словообразование. Конверсия ТЕКСТ А Charles Dickens Charles Dickens was born at Landport (Portsea), near Portsmouth, Hampshire, on 7 February, 1812. He was the second of eight children. His father, John, was a clerk in the Naval Pay Office at Portsmouth. The Dickens family, although not poor by the standards of the time, lived through a series of financial crises and the accompanying social insecurity. Dickens’ childhood was spent in Portsmouth, London, and Chatham in Kent, where there was a large Naval Dockyard. In 1823, facing financial ruin, the family moved to London and, on 5 February, 1824, Charles began to work in a blacking warehouse at Hungerford Stairs where he was employed to label bottles for six shillings a week.
A short time previously Charles’ father had been arrested for debt and the family, except for Charles, had joined their father in Marshalsea Debtors’ Prison. The combination of this family trauma and his own menial job profoundly affected Charles’ life and view of the world, and were to haunt him for the rest of his days. John Dickens was released after three month in prison by having himself declared an Insolvent Debtor. Charles was sent to school at the age of twelve, where he did well, and at the age of fifteen he began work in the office of a legal firm in Gray’s Inn. Here he taught himself shorthand, and eighteen months later started as a freelance reporter in the court of Doctors’ Commons. In 1829 Dickens fell deeply in love with Maria Beadnell, and the affair dragged on inconclusively until the summer of 1833. Meanwhile, Dickens’ career was prospering, with his rapid and accurate reporting of debates in the House of Commons for the Morning Chronicle, and good reviews for his literary work led to him being commissioned by the publishers, Chapman&Hall, to provide text in monthly instalments to accompany sporting plates by the artist, Seymour. It was in this way that the hugely successful Pickwick Papers were published in 1836-7.
In 1858 Dickens separated from his wife, by whom he had had ten children, and developed his friendship with a young actress called Ellen Ternan. Dickens’ health began to fail in the late 1860s, adversely affected by the strain of his very popular public readings, which he instituted in 1858, and a demanding tour of America in 1867-8. He suffered a stroke at his home at Gad’s Hill, near Rochester, Kent, on 8 June, 1870, and died the next day.
Словарь to be born – родиться to be released – быть освобожденным, clerk – клерк, чиновник выйти из тюрьмы by the standards of the time – по стандар- insolvent debtor – несостоятельный должник там (меркам) того времени to do well – хорошо учиться to live through – пережить at the age of – в возрасте insecurity – небезопасность, ненадежность shorthand – стенография childhood – детство court – суд ruin – гибель, разорение, крах fall in love with – влюбиться в to move to – переезжать в inconclusively – не давая результатов, (не blacking warehouse – склад ваксы (чернил) завершаясь) to be employed – работать, служить meanwhile – тем временем, между тем to label bottles – клеить этикетки на бутылки to prosper – процветать previously – до, прежде, ранее to be commissioned – получать заказ to be arrested for debt – быть арестован- instal(l)ment – часть, отдельный выпуск ным за долг a book in five instalments – книга, вышедexcept – кроме шая пятью выпусками debtors’ prison – долговая тюрьма successful – успешный trauma – травма to separate from one’s wife – разойтись с menial job – черная работа женой affect – воздействовать, влиять to fail – ослабевать, ухудшаться (о здоровье) profoundly – глубоко, основательно to institute – учреждать, основывать view of the world – взгляд на жизнь he suffered a stroke – у него был удар to haunt – преследовать (о мыслях) to die – умереть the rest of smth – остаток чего-либо Упражнение 1. Задайте 8 общих и 8 специальных вопросов к тексту.
Упражнение 2. Скажите, верны ли следующие утверждения и если нет, то почему.
1) Charles Dickens was born at Landport (Portsea), near Portsmouth, Hampshire, on 7 February, 1812. 2) He was the third of eight children. 3) Charles’ father was arrested for debt and Charles joined him in Marshalsea Debtors’ Prison. 4) In 1829 Dickens got married to Maria Beadnell. 5) Dickens’ health began to fail in the late 1860s. He suffered a stroke at his home at Gad’s Hill, near Rochester, Kent, on 8 June, 1870, and died the next day.
Упражнение 3. Перескажите текст, используя лексику из словаря.
Упражнение 4*. Обсудите в диалогах книги Чарльза Диккенса, которые вы читали.
Обобщение лексического материала Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие предложения с английского языка на русский.
1) It was hard to describe the nightmare she had lived through. 2) Most of successful people had a happy childhood. 3) After he had separated from his family, his health failed and he died. 4) He fell in love with Mary and courted her inconclusively for five years. 5) At the age of ten he did well at school. 6) He moved to London at the age of 60 and spent the rest of his life there. 7) That trauma affected him profoundly. 8) Old people often suffer from a great sense of insecurity. 9) He was born to be a writer. 10) Everyone except Adam went to the concert.
Упражнение 6. Переведите следующие предложения с русского языка на английский.
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