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For taught courses, lectures and seminars provide the basis of The UK office of Science and Technology is currently piloting a study at various classes between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. Although lecture aunew research master’s degree, an MRes (Master of Research). This is diences can be very large – (perhaps over a hundred students) – there is designed to prepare students for a doctorate. It may eventually become usually an opportunity to ask questions. Seminars and tutorials provide the normal starting point for a PhD but it is not mandatory.

more opportunity for discussion in smaller groups. The size of a seminar group may vary considerably. Some universities retain a tradition of oneDoctorates to-one work, while others rarely have groups smaller than 20.

The doctoral degree, or doctorate, is awarded for in-depth original research in a specific field that makes a real contribution to knowlCoursework and exams edge. Students carry out independent research (under supervision of a Students are sometimes asked to write essays which are then disprofessor), and write up their results and conclusions as a thesis. Postcussed in the group – this is a good opportunity to develop your skills graduate research can be in almost any subject. All universities award in presentation and discussion. This work is supported by reading and 21 the degree of Doctor of Philosophy for both arts and science doctorates. 4. A college or university providing accommodation for its In some universities, the title awarded is DPhil, though in most cases it members is called _.

is PhD. 5. A student who has already obtained a first degree and is A doctorate usually takes three years to complete, but can take studying for a higher degree is called.

much longer. Most doctorates include some coursework, but the doc- 6. The examination held at the end of a three- or four-year unitorate is usually awarded entirely on the thesis. A PhD is not an easy versity or college degree is called.

option. To succeed you need ability, commitment, motivation and self- 7. A degree higher than the Master’s degree is called.

discipline. 8. The most famous doctorate in the UK is.

Research degrees demand considerable individual motivation 9. A researcher in higher education is usually called.

and organisation. As the emphasis of a research degree differs from a taught course, so the methods of study differ. Research students attend 3. Work in pairs. In turn ask and answer questions on the text only those classes that are particularly relevant to their research. For the most part they work individually under the personal guidance of a 4. Write a summary of the text (maximum 15 sentences). With supervisor (though some scientists on big projects may work in teams). your part-ner practice interpreting it The doctoral thesis is the writing-up of at least three years of in- tense research, and is book-like in length. Indeed, many theses are later 5. Work in groups of 3. Using the relevant information from adapted for publication. In addition to submitting their thesis, PhD can- the texts and the table below give presentations on the system of edudidates are examined on their research in an oral examination, which is cation in England or Wales (primary, secondary, further and higher) known as a viva.

TASKS 1. Suggest the Russian for the following word-combinations A course of studies, to sit for a final examination, specialised courses, single-subject degrees, general degrees to qualify for postgraduate study, to be interested in research work, to lead to a higher degree, advanced studies, schools of studies, the award of certificates or diplomas.

2. Complete the sentences below with information from the text 1. The requirements for an MA or PhD degree usually include the preparation of _.

2. An examiner who is invited from another university in order to be present at the final examination and to ensure objectivity is called _.

3. The post held by a professor is called.

23 EDUCATION IN ENGLAND AND WALES SCANNING Age Scan texts A to C and do the tasks 1 Pre-school (play school / play groups) Text A. True or False 1. Pupils start secondary school in England at the age of 12.

5 Primary School or First School 2. Students have to worry about three main exams.

C S 3. Both exams are called G.C.E.

O C Exam 4. Students take their first exam at the age of 14.

M H 8 Junior School 5. At the age of 16–18 students take their last secondary school P O 9 Middle School exam called "A" level.

U O 6. All levels exams are graded "A" to "D".

L L Exam 7. The percentages are not the same for "A" levels and "O" levels.

S I 12 Secondary School (comprehensive school, modern 8. Students stay at school after taking "O" level because they O N 13 school, grammar school, private / public school) want to apply for university places.

R G Exam 9. Most people take "A" levels in more that 4 subjects.

Y 10. Different ratios of "A" to "C" are the grades asked for by typi Exam cal British universities.

Sixth-Form College Secondary School Exams in Britain 18 University or College or Polytechnic (3 or 4 year People at secondary school in England (that is, pupils between course) the ages of 12 and 18) have two main exams to worry about, called GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and "A" (ad21 vanced) level exams. Earlier they took the first one at 16. It was called "O" (ordinary) level. There was another exam which you could take Post-Graduate Studies instead of "O" level: it was called the C.S.E. (Certificate of Secondary Education), and it was not as difficult as "O" level. Most people took "O" level in about seven or eight different subjects. Nowadays GCSEs (General Certificate of Secondary Education) have replaced "O" levels Notes pretty much entirely.

Primary school: ages between 4 and 5 up to 7. At 7 an exam is There are lots of subjects to choose from – everything from carheld.

pentry to ancient languages. For a lot of jobs, such as nursing, you must Junior school: ages from 8 to 11. At 11 an exam is held.

have four or five GCSEs, and usually these must include English and Secondary school: ages from 12 to 16 (sometimes to 18). At Maths. You may leave school when you are fifteen. But if you stay at an exam is held.

school after taking GCSEs, you go into the Sixth Form (the so-called At 16 everybody takes the General Certificate of Secondary Sixth Form college), and start working for the second main exam: "A" Education (GCSE) exams.

25 (advanced) level. Most people take "A" level when they are about 18. It 4. Oxford and Cambridge mainly use a _ method.

is quite a difficult exam, so people don't usually take it in more than 5. Education of University standard is also provided in colleges of _ and _ colleges.

three subjects (maximum four), some only take one or two subjects.

6. The three terms into which the British University year is The passes (for all exams) are grades "A" to "F":

_ are roughly eight to ten weeks.

"A" = 80–100 % "C" = 55 % 7. Each term is _ with different activities.

"B" = 60–80 % "D" = 45 % "E" and "F" are very low grades and may be considered a failure.

Of the full-time students now attending British universities the "A" levels, graded "A" to "F", have the same percentages as the proportions of men and women are roughly the same. Nearly half of other exams. When the children apply for University places, this is female students are engaged in the study of arts subjects such as hiswhen their grades are important. The Universities will state what tory, languages, economics or law, the others are studying pure or apgrades they need to be accepted to study there. Most ask for one "A" plied sciences such as medicine, dentistry, technology, or agriculture.

and two "B’s", sometimes for three "B’s", sometimes 2 "B’s" and a "C" The University of London, for instance, includes internal and ex– so that sets the target for the student to work for. Three "A" levels are ternal students, the latter coming to London only to sit for their examienough to get you into most Universities. For others, such as Oxford nations. Actually most external students at London University live in and Cambridge, you have to take special exams as well.

London. The colleges in Oxford and Cambridge are essentially residential institutions and they mainly use a tutorial method which brings the Notes tutor into close and personal contact with the student: each student "O" level – обычный уровень meets his tutor to have his work scrutinized and discussed. These col"A" level – повышенный уровень leges, being residential, are necessarily far smaller than most of the G.C.E. – общее свидетельство об образовании (General colleges of the University of London.

Certifi-cate of Education) Education of University standard is also provided in other instiC.S.E. – свидетельство о среднем образовании (Certificate of tutions of higher learning such as colleges of technology and agriculSecondary Education) tural colleges, which prepare their students for degrees or diplomas in passes – проходные баллы their specialist fields.

grades – отметки Traditional three terms into which the British University year is to apply for – подавать документы для поступления в униdivided are roughly eight to ten weeks. Each term is crowded with difверситет ferent activities, and the vacations between the terms – a month at to be accepted – зд.: зачислять (в университет) Christmas, a month at Easter, and three to four months in summer – are mainly periods of intellectual digestion and independent studies. These Text B. Insert suitable words / figures from the text days many universities have adopted semesters instead of terms, typically about 14–15 weeks long.

Some Aspects of British University Life 1. Nearly half of British students are engaged in the study of Notes _ subjects.

art subjects – гуманитарные науки (все науки, кроме наук 2. The University of London includes _ and _ students.

естественного цикла) 3. The colleges in the University of London are _ instituinternal students – студенты-очники tions, while those of Oxford and Cambridge are _.

27 external students – студенты-заочники READING FOR GIST (SKIMMING) institutions – учебные заведения, общежития которых нахо- дятся на их территории Text A. Skim through the text quickly and get the main idea. Then intellectual digestion – усвоение знаний choose the most appropriate title among the ones given be low Text C. Fill in the gaps with suitable preposition from the box given 1. The main requirements for admission to British universities.

below 2. Educational tradition of Great Britain.

3. Oxford and Cambridge universities maintain their separation Subjects in British Universities from other British universities.

of for in 4. Admission to British universities and colleges.

within through (2) at into on by under (3) (2) (2) The central clearing house for admissions, the Universities CenThe typical academic programme _ university students in tral council on Admissions, was established in 1961 to cope with the Great Britain is composed a varying number of courses or sub- problem of multiple applications. Students are admitted to British Unijects a field of specialization. versities on the basis of their results in the examinations for the General The academic obligations _ each subject fall _ three Certificate of education. Good "A" level results in at least two subjects broad types. Lectures, _ which attendance is not always compul- are necessary to get a place at a university. However, good exam passes sory, often outline the general scope of the subject matter and stress the are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews. The particular specialization _ the lecturer. Tutorials, _ individual country has always had a tradition of high quality higher education for or group discussion, reading extensively, and writing essays _ the relatively few students. Oxford and Cambridge maintain their separatutor's direction, ensure focused and in-depth understanding of the sub- tion from other universities, and students at these ancient universities are selected by the colleges and private corporations from the top of the ject.

academic pile. For all British citizens a place at a university brings with Examination _ each subject requires the student to consoliit a grant from their Local Educational Authority.

date his knowledge _ the subject, which he has gained _ lectures, discussions and a great deal of independent study. These three Notes categories of academic activity – lectures, tutorials and examinations – provide the means which students prepare themselves The Universities Central Council on Admissions – Центральspecialized fields of knowledge British universities.

ный совет по вопросам приема в университеты General Certificate of Education (the GCE) "0" and "A" level Notes – Свидетельство об общем образовании Local Educational authority (LEA) – местные органы наacademic obligations – зд.: обязательные формы обучения родного образования tutorials – встречи / консультации со своим преподавателем The top of the academic pile – верхушка школьной пирамиды in-depth – глубокий consolidate – закреплять 29 2. Work in groups of four (five). As a group discuss, choose or S P E A K I N G develop yourselves 5–6 criteria that you find most relevant and useful for those who plan to enroll on courses / at universities abroad. Get TASKS ready to present your group’s criteria to the rest of the class providing reasons for your choices. Explain whether you think these are appli1. Read some recommendations for choosing a course and a cable to people applying for Russian universities too college in Great Britain. Do you find these useful If yes, in which way If no, why not • Do I want to live and study in London, or in a smaller city or town Choosing a college • Do I prefer to study at a larger college or a small college • Has the college been established for a long time or is it a new Before choosing a course you should think about what to do at one Which do I prefer the end of the course. You can then ask yourself the following ques• Has the college been accepted by an accrediting body tions:

• If I am planning to apply for a grant or loan from my home • What qualifications do I ultimately want to obtain government is the college acceptable to them • Will the course give the right qualifications for the job I want, or for the next course I want to take • Do I know exactly what the college is going to teach me • Is this the right course for my long-term aims • Do I know what sort of teaching methods the college uses It is important not to rush with your decision about which course Which method suits me best to take. You should try to avoid changing courses too often. It is not • What other facilities does the college provide Does it progood for your academic progress – especially if you never complete vide all the facilities I would like to have any of the courses. It can be very expensive to keep changing courses, • Does the college provide its own residential accommodation and it may also give the Home Office the impression that you are not a Do I want accommodation in the college or would I prefer to live outgenuine student.

side the college Does the college help students to find • Will the college / university provide me with decent acaccommodation commodation • How much does the course cost Have I enough money to You should also check whether the college provides residential cover the tuition fees and my living expenses accommodation or helps its students to find accommodation. Colleges in smaller towns are more likely to provide accommodation than col3. Imagine that you have to choose a place to study. Put these leges in London or other large cities. Whatever sort of accommodation factors in order of priority from 1 to 7 (1 = most relevant). Which one you decide to take, you should try to have it arranged before you arrive would influence you most in making a decision in the UK.

– the location _ If you are going to live in college you should check whether you – the reputation _ can stay in the room during the holidays.

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