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history, geography, a modern foreign language, art, music and physical education.

Between the ages of Religious education is also compulsory.

and 16 pupils will:

All pupils will study all subjects.

achieve a readable, Key stages pleasing writing style Your child's progression through educa write effectively about tion will have four key stages and asdemanding topics sessment will take place at the end of learn to speak persuaeach.

sively and clearly, and to use language approGenerally, each subject has ten levels and priate to the situation, your child will progress through one level topic or purpose at a time. The top level is 10 but not all read a wide variety of pupils will reach this level.

fiction, poetry and An average 16-year-old will attain level drama, including some 6 or 7 pre-20th century works interpret, evaluate and compare texts 11 2. Complete the sentences using information from the text. You 15. Higher education, consisting of courses at universities and on _ at polytechnics may need to change the form of the words where necessary and other establishments of higher and further education.

1. As a result of education _ since 1988, various 16. After three years of study, a student may _ to a Bacheforms of school curriculum and of pupils progress lor's degree and later to the degree of Master which is have been _.

based on at least one year's full-time work and that of Doctor of Phi2. The government declares that its is education losophy which _ for a thesis which must be _.

including standards in schools and _ of the teaching profession.

3. Answer the following questions 3. Primary and secondary education are while fur1. Is there a unified system of education in the United Kingdom ther education is.

2. What are recent reforms focused on 4. About 7 % attend independent schools, the rest 3. What is the Government policy aimed at receive financed from public funds.

4. What stages does the system of public education in England 5. In England and Wales they have _ schools, i.e.

and Wales include non-selective comprehensive schools which cater for children of all 5. Which of them are compulsory and which are voluntary abilities.

6. What age groups does compulsory schooling embrace 6. Of late in Northern Ireland they _ a small number of 7. Do the majority of British students receive free or fee-paying _ at primary and secondary levels.

education 7. Being formerly outside, the foundation category in8. In which parts of the country is education more selective cludes schools, while the voluntary category will include 9. What new categories of schools are being set up in Great Britain schools with a _.

10. Define further education. Which education is included into 8. In state schools parents have the right to be given_ further education and which is not as well as to be represented_, which.

11. What do you think about the rights that British parents (whose 9. Pupils studying is ensured by broadly based nachildren study at state schools) have tional curricula which in England and Wales consists of _.

12. What role does the National Curriculum play 10. In state schools parents have the right their chil13. Why does the government support EducationBusiness partdren from religious and sex education classes.

nerships 11. The government assumes that young people must 14. What can pupils in England and Wales take up in their last skills through _ links which will help pupils to see _.

two years of compulsory schooling 12. In England and Wales pupils can at any time in 15. Give a definition to vocational education.

their last two years.

16. What sub-divisions does vocational education fall into 13. To be prepared for _ higher education or profes17. What kind of education is most popular among students besional training students (i.e. study for examinations which tween 15 and 18 years old lead to higher education) or.

18. Where can one get higher education in the UK 14. About 2.5 million students in further education, 19. What parts of the country are the best known British universiwhich is mainly _, and consists of _ and ties located _ education.

20. What faculties (departments) does a typical British university consist of 13 21. When and for what is Bachelors degree given 6. Study the four statements about school leavers in the 1990s.

22. What levels can Bachelors degree be Explain the difference Then look at the graph. The Title of Column 4 is: NO PLANS.

between these. Match each of the columns 1, 2 and 3 with one of these titles:

23. Who can earn Doctors degree 24. Is the "tutorial" system characteristic of all British universities YOUTH TRAINING EMPLOYMENT EDUCATION 25. Are all students expected to make a contribution towards their tuition fees 26. What does "means-tested contribution" mean 4. Look through the text again and point out the sentences (parts of sentences) containing key information which you could use later to make your presentation on the topic 5. So the school leaving age in Britain is 16. Here is a flow chart showing the possibilities for young people in Britain from age 16.

Study the flow chart and say whether a chart for your country would show many differences from this one What are the main ones a) More young people are now leaving school without any plans for their future.

b) In the 1990s, only 15 % of young people went straight into work, compared with over 30 % in the Eighties.

c) There has been a decline in numbers joining youth training schemes.

d) Record numbers of 16-year-olds are staying in education, as youth unemployment rates rise. Well over 60 % are now in education.

This shows that Britain is catching up with Europe, Japan and America, where 90 % of 16-year-olds continue schooling.

15 7. In England, university entrance is based on the results of the Lecturers are having to take larger classes and the ratio of acaA-level exams, but there are a number of steps which many pupils go demics to students is falling in line with practices more common on the through in the two years before university. Here are some of the main Continent. Students, meanwhile, fear their degrees being devalued.

ones. How many of them are also necessary in your country While once they offered entry into an elite, assured of employment, now they are no guarantee of avoiding the dole queue. To make matters a) Visit a careers office at school.

worse, some years ago it was suggested students start paying a proporb) Discuss their choice with their teacher or headteacher.

tion of university fees earlier paid by the state and student grants c) Send off for prospectuses from various universities (broslowly evolved into loans payable once they start earning.

chures which describe the university and its courses).

d) Visit the universities they are interested in (go to "open days").

TASKS e) Apply to the universities by filling in a form listing five choices.

1. Find the equivalents from the text to the following words f) Take school exams: the results are used to predict "A" level and word combinations results, and are recorded on university applications.

, , Text B. Read the text and do the tasks , , Universities go to the market , , , The country has always had a tradition of high quality higher , education for relatively few students, selected from the top of academic .

pile. Over the last few years, however, the government has made a concerted effort to widen the sector so that a larger proportion of the 2. Answer the questions. (You can use them as a plan to render population gains qualifications.

the text later) Universities and colleges are now financed according to the 1. How is the British educational system doing Are the scores number of students they attract. The results have exceeded expectations so dramatically that expansion has now had to be capped. Student and knowledge of current students declining compared with those of numbers have doubled over the past decade to nearly 1,6 million. A ten or twenty years ago target, set in 1989, of one in three young people entering higher educa- 2. What is done by the government to address problems with the tion by the year 2000 was in sight within three years.

educational system and to improve it Panic has now set in at the realization that more students means 3. Are students adequately trained to deal with the world of more money to pay for them cash which just is not available. Last work November, the government announced a budget cut in higher education 4. What groups in society have access to education, for example, amounting to a 9.4 percent reduction in capital spending.

to higher education Universities began to seek extra income from industry, com5. Are traditional classroom practices being changed merce and from renting out their premises to summer schools. But 6. What new trends are there in education in other countries vice-presi-dents still warn that the famed quality of British universities is under threat.

17 3. Compress the text: Text C. Read the text and do the tasks that follow. Pay attention to abbreviations you come across in the text and their meaning.

a) leaving out unimportant extra information according to the Do you think British university degrees in any way correModel I.

spond to Russian degrees Model I Postgraduate course The country has always academic pile (original version of words). The country has always had a tradition of high quality higher Types of university degrees education for a few selected students (compressed version of 16 words).

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the most usual titles for b) combining sentences to express the main idea of the whole a first degree are Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BSc) passage according to Model II.

and those for a second degree Master of Arts (MA), Master of Science (MSc) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). After a course of studies Model II lasting from three to four years which must be pursued at one and the The country has always had a tradition of high quality higher same university the undergraduate student sits for a final examination education for relatively few students, selected from the top of academic which, if he passes it, entitles him to a first degree. The present threepile. Over the last few years, however, the government has made a year degree course in Britain is one of the shortest in the world (its concerted effort to widen the sector so that a larger proportion of the in Scotland and many subjects take more than 3 years in England too, population gains qualifications. (original version) eg. modern languages).

Lately the UK government has tried to widen the sector of stuThe present first-degree system varies both in length and nomendents enjoying a tradition of high quality higher education from relaclature. First-degree courses in Arts and Science are of two main kinds:

tively few selected groups to a larger proportion of the population.

those which allow the student to spread his/her studies over a wider (version 1) field but less intensively and degrees in which the student specializes in Lately the UK government has tried to make the countrys edua specific field and studies it in depth. Universities use different names cation less selective. (version 2) to describe the degrees to which these two types of course lead. The degree obtained at the end of a specialised course in a single subject is 4. Render the text according to the plan usually called a degree with honours, although in some universities it 1. Whats the headline What key words helped you to predict may be called a Special degree.

the content of the article After taking a first degree those graduates who are interested in 2. What is the purpose of the article (to report a problem in research work follow postgraduate or advanced studies. Postgraduate education, a new government policy, a new way of teaching and so on) studies lead to higher degrees most of which are Masters or Doctors 3. What is the main idea of the article degrees. Postgraduate students are granted the Masters degree by the4. Does the article report a problem If so, what is it sis or examination after a minimum of one or two years of advanced 5. Does the article offer a solution to the problem If so, what is studies. The Doctorate (Doctoral /Doctors degree) generally requires it outstanding proficiency in some specialised branch of research. It is 6. Does the article make you feel optimistic or pessimistic about regarded as the highest degree.

this topic in education Why 19 Masters Degree individual study. Thus, the graduate takes 6 months to become expert in a subject before sitting examinations. His work is evaluated by conAll universities in the United Kingdom provide courses beyond tinuous assessment or through several written examinations, or a mixfirst degree level leading to postgraduate awards. They lead to a degree ture of the two. Coursework assessment may merely monitor your proat masters or doctoral level, or to diploma or certificate.

gress or may form an important part of the final test, as in the case of a Applications for postgraduate courses are welcome from stutaught masters project where students are required to produce a subdents with a first degree in an appropriate subject. The type and quality stantial dissertation. Written examinations usually form an important of Masters courses available vary considerably. The title of the Maspart of the assessment of taught courses.

ters degree is usually determined by the subject studied.

The taught part of the course is then followed by four to six MA Master of Arts months private research or project work on a special topic, that has to MSc Master of Science be written up as an extended essay, short thesis or dissertation.

MEng Master of Engineering The candidate (that is, the person, applying for the degree) subMTech Master of Technology mits his thesis to an examining board, appointed by the board of studies MBA Master of Business Administration (a committee of professors and lecturers, of which there is one for each There are no grades of masters degrees although some universisubject). The examining board usually consists of 2 or 3 specialists in ties may award a distinction for outstanding performance.

the candidates field. They read the thesis and then summon the candidate to an oral examination, sometimes called a viva (from Latin viva Academic year voce). At the oral viva the candidate is questioned on his/her thesis and Traditionally, the UK academic year runs from September or sometimes on related topics. After the oral examination the examiners October to June, divided into 3 terms of eight to ten weeks, with four come to a joint decision and either accept or reject the thesis.

weeks vacation at Christmas and Easter and three months vacation in The place of the traditional MA, awarded on acceptance of a thethe summer. Postgraduate students, however are frequently expected to sis, has been taken over in some universities by a new Masters degree work through vacations indeed, the bulk of the project for a taught (the Master of Philosophy, or the MPhil), obtained by research. The masters course will take place in the summer vacation.

MPhil may be in science, engineering, medicine, art or social studies.

MPhil is a qualification in its own right; if a student proves he/she has Lectures and seminars the ability and motivation to do research, it can lead to a doctorate.

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