УДК 20 Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации ББК 81.2 Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского Е25 Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ 2.07.2004 г. Протокол № 3 Рецензенты:
канд. филол. наук, доцент ОмА МВД России В.Г. Болотюк;
преп. каф. ин. языков ОмГУ Ж.Ю. Шацкая Е25 Education in Great Britain: Учебно-методическое пособие / Сост.: Е.И. Бояринцева, Т.П. Руденко. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГУ, 2004. – 76 с.
ISBN 5-7779-0511-0 EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN Пособие составлено на основе аутентичных и оригинальных материалов (текстов из зарубежных пособий, журналов, рекламУчебно-методическое пособие ных проспектов). Текст на аудирование был записан специально для этого пособия.
Состоит из 10 частей, нацеленных на развитие навыков всех видов речевой деятельности и их отработку в системе разнообразных упражнений по заявленной теме. Разработано с учетом принципа коммуникативной направленности и соответствует современным требованиям, предъявляемым к преподаванию иностранного языка в вузе.
Предназначено для студентов факультета иностранных языков и студентов старших курсов неязыковых специальностей.
Цель пособия – развитие и совершенствование навыков уст1. In Britain you have to attend school between:
ной речи на английском языке. При составлении пособия авторы a) 5 and ориентировались на конечную цель обучения студентов и исходиb) 5 and ли из концепции взаимосвязанного обучения основным видам c) 7 and иноязычной речевой деятельности: навыкам чтения, аудирования, перевода, интерпретации неадаптированного англоязычного текста. 2. A comprehensive school is....
Учебно-методическое пособие состоит из десяти разделов, a) a school of languages тексты которых многофункциональны. Формирование навыков и b) a school for 5–11 year olds умений диалогической и монологической речи осуществляется на c) a school for 11–16 year olds материале аутентичных текстов по проблемам образования в Великобритании с последующей развернутой системой как лексиче3. "Public" schools like Eton are very expensive – it costs more ских упражнений, так и упражнений, нацеленных на дальнейшее than 15,000 a year to be educated at Eton, for example. What proporразвитие навыков использования структур и рассчитанных на tion of British children attend "public" schools расширение знаний и навыков в новом лексическом окружении и в новых коммуникативных ситуациях.
a) 7 % Речевые упражнения предусматривают стимулирование наb) 10 % выков не только говорения, но и письменной речи, а также споc) 15 % собствуют синтезу всего пройденного лексико-грамматического материала. Тексты значительны по объему, что вызвано как мето4. In 1989 a new National Curriculum was introduced into Britдологической направленностью содержащегося в пособии матеish schools. Ten subjects had to be studied. Three of these subjects риала, так и стремлением дать более полное представление об called "core subjects" were chosen for special attention. Here are the английской системе высшего и "последующего" образования.
ten subjects to be studied. Which do you think are the "core subjects" Последний раздел пособия предоставляет возможность стуa) English f) Mathematics дентам проверить знания, полученные в процессе работы над теb) History g) A Foreign Language мой, выполнив разнообразные лексические упражнения.
c) Geography h) Design and Technology d) Art Physical i) Education e) Science j) Music 3 5. 16-year-olds in Britain have to take the General Certificate of R E A D I N G Secondary Education examinations. Girls have significantly better results than boys in three of the following GCSE subjects. Which three READING FOR DETAILED COMPREHENSION a) Mathematics d) History Text A. Learn the vocabulary paying attention to explanatory notes, b) English e) French then read the text. While reading focus on the boldfaced c) Biology f) Chemistry words / collocations which you will need to do the following tasks 6. The average pupil-teacher ratio in British schools is.......
General Profile of British System of Education a) 19 c) b) 22 d) further education – дальнейшее образование, дневное и вечернее, иногда с освобождением от работы. Платное. Основная цель – повышение квалификации. Возраст не ограничен.
full-time – c отрывом от производства part-time – без отрыва от производства sandwich courses – курсы (в основном при техническом колледже), где занятия чередуются с работой на производстве block release courses – занятия с отрывом от производства на определенный срок an honours degree – диплом с отличием Bachelor's degree – диплом об окончании вуза в России Bachelor of Arts / B.A. (BA) – бакалавр искусств (по одной из гуманитарных или математических наук в университете). Ставится после фамилии.
Bachelor of Science / B.Sc. (BSc) – обладатель первой ученой степени (first degree) в университетах. В Оксфорде – котируется выше (higher degree).
Master of Arts / M.A. (MA) – магистр искусств, обладатель второй ученой степени (higher degree). Выпускникам Оксбриджа присваивается без экзамена на основании определенных сроков практической работы после окончания; от других требуется написание работы на основе проведенных исследований. Наблюдается тенденция присвоения после года практической работы.
Master of Science / M.S(c). (MSc) – магистр естественных наук 5 Master of Philosophy / M.Phil. (MPhil) – магистр философии of integrated schools have been established at primary and secondary (относится и к др. наукам). Присуждается за научную работу, час- levels with the aim of providing education for Roman Catholic and тично содержащую материал, разработанный автором. Protestant children studying together.
Doctor of Philosophy / Ph.D. (PhD) – доктор философии. Most state school education in England, Scotland and Wales is Требуется написание самостоятельной работы на основе трехлет- provided by local government. In England and Wales a new structure них (или более) исследований. of foundation, community and voluntary schools is being set up. The lecturer / instructor (Am.) – преподаватель высшей школы community category includes schools formerly owned by Local Educatutor – преподаватель, ведущий практические занятия и вос- tion Authorities, while the foundation category includes many grantпитательную работу с определенной группой студентов maintained schools, which were outside local authority control. The voluntary category will include schools with a particular religious Education in Great Britain and Wales is regulated by the ethos.
Education Act, the Department of Education and Skills being the cenParents have a statutory right to express a preference for a tral authority established by law. Scotland and Northern Ireland have school. National tables are published on the performance of all schools educational systems of their own basically similar to that of England throughout Britain. All state schools have to give parents a written and Wales, but differing considerably in detail. Education in the counannual report on their child’s achievements. Parents are represented try has been undergoing a series of major reforms since 1988, inon school governing bodies, which appoint staff and manage school cluding the introduction of various forms of school curriculum; the budgets. Each school is regularly inspected by independent inspectors, testing and assessment of pupils’ progress and the provision of more working to agreed national standards.
information about school performance to parents. Education is the top Broadly based national curricula ensure that pupils study a balpriority of the Government. Policy is focused on raising standards in anced range of subjects. The National Curriculum in England and schools, ensuring learning targets are achieved, tackling social exWales consists of statutory subjects for 5- to 16-year-olds. Similar clusion, broadening access to further and higher education and enarrangements exist in Northern Ireland; in Scotland, content and manhancing the status and quality of the teaching profession.
agement of the curriculum are not prescribed by statute. All state The system of public education in England and Wales is organschools must provide religious education and all state secondary ized in three stages of Primary, Secondary and Further Education. The schools are required to provide sex education, although parents have first 2 are compulsory for all children. Further education is volunthe right to withdraw their children from these classes. All English tary. So children study at school from 5 to 16–18 years old. Then they primary schools are required to have a literacy and numeracy study can go to work, to further education or to university.
hour each day.
All children and young people between the ages of 5 and 16 in The main school examination, the General Certificate of SeconEngland, Scotland and Wales, and 4 and 16 in Northern Ireland, must, dary Education (GCSE), is taken in England, Wales and Northern Ireby law, receive full-time education. Over 9.9 million children attend land at around age 16. A broadly similar exam system exists in Scot33,685 state and private schools in Britain. About 93 % receive free land.
education financed from public funds, the rest attend fee-paying inAll qualifications offered to pupils in state schools in England dependent schools. Boys and girls are taught together in most schools.
and Wales must be approved by the Government. Associated syllaIn England and Wales non-selective comprehensive education caters buses and assessment must comply with national guidelines.
for children of all abilities (mixed-ability comprehensive schools).
One of the government objectives is to help young people deNearly all pupils in Scotland attend non-selective schools. Secondary velop economically relevant skills. It recognizes that school-business schools are largely selective in Northern Ireland, where a small number links can raise attainment levels and help pupils to see the relevance 7 of what they learn at school. It supports Education–Business partner- Courses are run by some 500 institutions of further education, ships and aims to bring closer links between schools and industry so many of which also offer higher education courses.
that young people develop skills to help them succeed in the labour A wide range of national vocational qualifications, designed market. All young people in full-time education are entitled to ca- mainly for people in work, are based on national standards that define reers information and guidance. In England and Wales pupils can take the competence, knowledge and understanding that employers need.
up work experience placements at any time in their last two years of Higher Education compulsory schooling. In Scotland the Education for Work programme also develops business-education links.
Higher education, consisting of degree and equivalent courses, Students who choose to continue their studies after 16 – about has experienced a dramatic expansion. Today one in three young peotwo-thirds – work for academic (i.e. study for examinations which ple enters higher education compared with one in six in 1989. Higher lead to higher education) or vocational qualifications which are the education is provided at universities, "the new universities" (former main standard for entry to higher education or professional training.
polytechnics which became known as "new universities" in the early These include the General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ), nineties) and other establishments of higher and further education.
mainly taken between the ages of 16 and 18, which is designed to proThere are some 170 universities and higher education instituvide a broad-based preparation for a range of occupations and higher tions, which enjoy academic freedom. First degree courses are education; the academic General Certificate of Education Advanced mainly full time and usually last three years (four in Scotland), with (A) level examination taken at the age of 18 or 19, and the Advanced longer courses in subjects such as medicine. Universities offer courses Supplementary (AS) examination.
in a wide range of subjects. The oldest and best known universities are in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Liverpool, Durham, Edinburgh, BrisFurther Education and Training tol, Cardiff, Birmingham. A university consists of a number of faculAbout 2.5 million students are enrolled in further education, ties: divinity / theology, economics, engineering, agriculture, commuch of which is work-related. Further education is for persons over merce and education. After three years of study, a student may proceed compulsory school age, and consists of full-time and part-time educa- to a Bachelor’s degree and later to the degree of Master and Doctor.
tion. It comprises all forms of public education except secondary (be- The Bachelor’s Degree (Bachelor of Commerce, Science or Music) is tween ages of 11 and 15), i.e. grammar, modern and comprehensive given to students who pass exams at the end of three to four years of schools as well as independent / private schools, university education study. Bachelors’ degrees are at two levels, Honours and Pass. In and teacher training. The main sub-divisions of vocational education some cases the Honours Degree is awarded for intensive study and are technical, commercial, art, agricultural and horticultural. Aca- examination in one, two or perhaps three related subjects, while the demic work and professional training differ from college to college. Pass (or General) degree may be somewhat broader. In some cases the Some colleges provide "sandwich" courses or short full-time block Honours degree is given to the students who are more successful in release courses. There may be several patterns for sandwich courses: 6 their examination.
months in college and 6 months in industry / office; alternatives are 4/8 The first post-graduate degree is that of Master, conferred for and 6/10. Many students between 15 and 18 attend mainly part-time a thesis based on at least one year’s full-time work. Everywhere the courses, either by day release or block release from employment, or degree of Doctor of Philosophy is awarded for a thesis which is an evening courses. Part-time training also includes correspondence original contribution to knowledge.
courses and distance learning as well as refresher courses. The British universities have their own way of life and traditions which are carefully preserved. For example, sometimes you can see 9 TASKS students at Oxbridge wearing a cap and gown – it’s a custom from the time when students were clergymen.
1. For you to have an idea what the National Curriculum in Academic life in universities is exciting and very busy. Students Britain looks like, here is a part of a brochure prepared to inform attend lectures given by professors and lecturers, have seminars and parents about it work on their own in universities’ libraries and laboratories.
Higher education is largely financed by public funds although It is unlikely that your students who have begun their studies since September 1998 are exchild will attain the pected to make a contribution of up to 1,000 towards their tuition same level in all areas fees. This contribution is means-tested, so that tuition is free for stuof study and the Nadents from lower income families.
tional Curriculum has The maintenance grant has been replaced by a maintenance been devised so that loan. The loan is partly means-tested, so that only students from lower pupils can forge ahead income families are entitled to the full loan.
in their strong areas of study and get help with their weaker ones.
How it works Here is an example The National Curriculum subjects are:
from the programme of mathematics, science, English, technology, study in English.
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