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Taa 8.Opaoa cec Haeoae oaaee aapae c PA oaco eao Bpe opao, . 15 capeoc, % 5 - 7 2 - ooa caoc, % 40 - 50 10 - Bpe paccaa, cy. 3 ae, peee ae, oaa, o aecee oaae caoo aca opaoaoo PA aeo e o cpae c opaoo aapae c oaco eao. Oe aapaa c oaco eao - 0,01 3, acoa pae aa ea - 1500 o/. poe yye aecex oaaee, oo cea o o coo eoc opao oox cece PA.

8.3. POTOBEHE APAHOBO ACT OHOHAHO OAB ETOHOB oye eeoeoa c co cyaao coca cpoex, opcx .. coopye poo xa eoa oec oaa. B aece oecx oao (cece poopyx poopyx oepxoco-ax eec) pe ooy apaoy acy. B ocoe oa pecae coo oecoe coeee yx pax o coe xeco ppoe eec - opoo pacope (o) c eop poo eeco (apao).

Beee ao oa eoy cec ooe pe oe aa.

pcyce opoaoo oeca apaa cococye pooa eoa.

Hae opy poac apaa coax oooe o ooe eo paoepo pacpee eo oee eoo cec. p o aca ec acaopo.

cceoa oaa, o coa ycoo o pee cce "apa oa" eoxoa ceaa opaoa yaax eec.

Xeca opaoa ocyecec eee ccey AB, cocooo acoppoac a oepxoc paea a. B peyae eee eco a pae o a c eopo (pooo) oepxoc cooe eaoe oepxocoe apee yeaec, o cococye peooe ecoecoc ooeo yeae yey oepxoc paea a [8].

eca opaoa ocyecec PA p ooaopo oec a cec. Paa ypyeoc, yca ae copoc ooa, yca cxoae aaox aep cococy eca poecca ypoa.

cepe o pooe apaoo ac pooc a cepeao cee, ocao apapae 5.1. Texoo pooe a ceya. Hapee oe acce o pacae apa ooaoa oeo oopooa oa o eepayp 80 C aao coooe oaac a c xoxoo pao eao peapeo epeeac. aee pyocepca cec oepaac ocoo opaoe PA. Cec pypoaa a cepeao cee o ayoy oypy. B xoe opao cec opac po. O oaa, o ye oce ooo a opao oa oaaac xec cao poaca apaa, .e. opaoaac ooa ccea, p oca opaoaa e (ooy apaoy acy).

yee apaoo ac a coca eoo cec eoa pooc a opaax cocaa: ee : eco : ee = 1 : 1,7 : 3,5 o acce. Boax cooa eo, pooe a opaeee M500, apeo ece M = 1,5 pao ee pa 5 - 20 . Opa eoa c paepa 7 7 7 c oaac o oo aopaopo exoo. apaoy acy o ece c oo aope aopaopy eooeay. oce opoa opa epac eee pex aco opao-ax ycox, a ae oepac epoaoco opaoe o pey 3 + 6 + 3 aco. p eepaype ooo 60 C ac apaa epexo oeyee cocoe, oapy ap op eoa. p oca eoa apa opaaec epoaaoe cocoe, paa eoy oocooc. Haac e oeo pooa.

Peya cceoa o-exaecx coc eoo oaa, o eee apaoo ac cyeceo acpye eoy cec, a a p pao ee ooc ooeeoe ooee caec c 0,53 eoaooo cocaa o 0,- 0,39.

Oaoe oeco oa eoo cocae 1 - 3 % o acc eea, a aeee ee yeee po ce pooc eox opao cpae c aoo.

Mooaopoe oece a opaaaey cec PA cococye oe cpoy ecoy poe poac apaa coa ooo cce "apa - oa", c coo cee cepcoc. Bcoa ycooc cce o pee oeceaec a ce acop a oepxoc paea a e AB ooaoaa C C21 - C25.

aoap acpye cocooc apaoo ac caec ooopeoc cec. Texooecoe peyeco oo ea aaec oooc oo eea a 5 - 10 %, oe ooc epoaeoc eoa.

Oea pooa eoa aca apaa cae ooooee a 40 50 %, oa eo oppooy cooc ooeoc ycox oec x apeccx cpe.

8.4. HTEHCA POECCA OEH PACTBOPA AOPACTE HA B 0,5 % BOHO-EOHO CPEE B pooce oepo aece ceocaaopo pe 2-(2-poc-5ee)-epao (T), oop cepy 2-po-2-poc -5eaoeoa (HA). poecc xapaepyec co pacxoo peaeo, opaoae ooo oeca oxoo eco xoo eeoo poya, ooy papaoa aooxox exoo oye ceocaaopa ec ao epceo aae.

Pacopoc HA oo-eoo cpee oycoea opaoae apeo co o eoo pye. eoa cpea cococye yee xoa oeoo poya. p epeea oaco eao, pacopoc HA cocae 1 - o/ 0,5 % pacope poca ap.

eee oepa NaOH o 40 % ooe oc pacopoc HA o 0,024 o/. Bope cexoep pea o poca ap, eoxooo ooo pacope, o ooe HA cocae 200 - 400 oe [9, 10]. o pee oycoe o ocao ccoa apeo co aopace (HA), oopa ooo py aee eoa oe a [11]. y eeca o ae ec aoee ee poecco, py copoc ceo poecca pacope HA oo-eoo cpee.

poee cepeae cceoa o e poaycecoo oec a poecc pacope HA oo-eoo cpee. B cepeax cooa poc ap aa "c" HA, epepcaoa aoa, coy HA opopoa c oo oocoo xpoaopa opeee eepayp ae (. . 117 C).

Pacopee aopace HA 0,5 % oo-eoo cpee poo a ycaoe, ocao apapae 5.1 ypayoo ae M-2. epe pacopee opoo HA cya o ocoo acc eeca. Pace acc opoa HA, eoxoo pacope, poo o cyxoy eecy. op NaOH HA ea a aaecx ecax c ooc o 0,01 . oce oo, aecy NaOH pacop eoxoo oee o. ae o oe aca opoo HA, paea oaoo o ooo caa ceo opoa pacopo opa op cxooo pacopa. B aee cxo pacop cooa aece oa cpae c pacopo HA, opaoa PA. oyey cec aa a ycao poo pacopee pye ooa cpe o ayoy oypy epe PA.

oce opeeeoo ca o opao opa po oyeoo pacopa.

poecc pacope poo p ocox: eepaype - =1 - ae =1 ; pacxoe - = 1.

opeee oepa HA oo-eoo pacope ep ooceoe ceopoycae oyeoo pacopa a ooepeco oopepe a KF-5 c oo appoooo paa o pao eoa aaa [12].

Ceopoycae oyeoo pacopa cpaa c cxo pacopo, ceopoycae oopoo ca pa 100 %. epe oooopepec aao ao po pacopa ya epe ac epypoae a coocopoco epye a W-310. Ta opao, pacopa yae ec epacope opoo HA.

Ha pc. 8.4.1 pee pa acoc oepa C oyeoo pacopa HA o yex epoapa a opaoy pacopa, oope oaa oeco ep, apaeo a opaoy e oea pacopa a opeee poeyo pee. eca poecca pacope HA 0,5 % eoo pacope oycoea aao oece, oopoe, o-epx, po ccoa oey o a o poca poco. Bo-opx, oaae oee e a ccey pacope, aaeec o, o o ece aa oey eepoa, ao c oey o, popea eoop ap. p ocaoo oo coooe ey apo payco oey cocee ac pacope oaac eco opepoa oe oo-oey HA oex oey o opay coaaoy oooy, e ao copoa opae aoy, a ao oopoa - aoy, .e., pocxo cpyypoopaoae.

o e copooaec oee po poco pee oppe oeypoo e. o oece eco opepoax oey pacope, opayx epy oooy, oae acoe yopoae oee yaex oeypx oe e epo coao ooo - o a aaea opa eca epeca coaa. B ao cyae pocxo caa pacopeoo eeca (HA) pacopee. B-pex, paa ypyeoc, yca cxoae aaox aep cococy yee yooo co yee oepxoc aooo oaa a ce ceppoa epx ac. B-eepx, p aaoo opaoe pocxo aa pacope, oopa paaec oe pH cpe.

C 1,0,Pc. 8.4.1. acoc oepa C (o/) oyeoo pacopa HA o yex epoapa (B /3) a opaoy pacopa.

Pacopee: 1 - PA, 2 - ypayoo ae p ocaa oyeoo pacopa eee pex cyo oepa HA yeaec cpee a 50 %. o ocec e, o ep, oopa a oyea cceo p aaoo oec, eeo ccpye p ee cpyyp pacope oceeo oe pH. Ha pc. 8.4.2 oaa pa acoc ppae pH o o pee opao ypayoo ae PA.

e yee pH cpe oo oc poeae ceyx xecx pea: a epo ca oa peapye c pacope copoo c opaoae epoca oopoa:

;

a opo ca poeae pea paoe epoca oopoa:

.

o exa coacyec c a, pee paoax [13, 14].

B xoe aaooo oec epac ae oepa epoca oopoa eoo epaaaoep. oce pepae aaoo opao ccee peoaa opae xece pea, pH cpe co peee oaec o cxoo e, o ec, ae cyae o epao. oepa epoca oopoa ae caec, a o oop o o, o pea opa. p opaoe ox cpe ooe ce poyo cooa ox cceax a oyxe - oco aoa. cepea cceoa oapyeo aoee oo NO2 p opaoe cpoao o. Opayec aaoo ype ao aoa oy peapoa c poc paaa c opaoae o HNO3, o cec HNO2 + HNO3 [14].

C 1,1,0,0,0,t, Pc. 8.4.2. Bpeee acoc ppae pH, ee oepa [H2O2] [OH-] o p aaoo opaoe ypayoo ae PA.

1, 3, 4 - opaoa o ypayoo ae (3 - eee oepa [OH-]; 4 eee oepa [O2H2]); 2 - opaoa o PA p aaoo opaoe pocxo eca poecca pacope HA oo-eoo cpee a ce aa pacope "yapoo" oec a ccey.

aaooe oece a oe pacop po opaoa epoca oopoa, oop, paaac a poc-o, yeae pH cpe. ae pea c, o-oy, pea epoo opa. aaoa opaoa cce ooe poo c e xece epoxece ce occaoe HA o epaoa oo-eoo cpee c ee oepae NaOH p o e xoe oooo poya.

Hacpaae a aooeae aao pe pao PA oo poo eee yoo copoc poopa. cxo oo, poo cepe o cceoa yoo copoc poopa aapaa, a, ceoaeo, aco yca, a ecoc poecca pacope HA ooeoo cpee. B aece oaae, xapaepyeo ecoc pacope, a paa oepa pacopeoo eeca pacopee oce opeeeoo ca o opao PA.

Ha pc. 8.4.3 oaa pa acoc oepa HA 0,5 % pacope NaOH oe o aco oea p pao ce o opaoa PA. Macae ae oepa HA oye p acoax oea .

ae x aco yoeopeo coaa c acoa, p oopx aaec aooeae pe pao PA c ooe coo oea e epoeoo acoca. Aapy pa, oo cea o, o aa ae oc co a eca poecca pacope HA, a a c yeee yoo copoc poopa ecoc aa opacae, o oepa HA ae pace c poco yoo copoc poopa.

Pc. 8.4.3. pa acoc oepa HA - 1 0,5 % oo-eoo pacope o aco oea.

pe: 1 - 40 o opao; 2 - 25 o; 3 - 15 o;

4 - 5 o; 5 - 3 a 8.5. BEEHE POBO PA EOBO-HX OMECOB PA ae peee pee eoopx exooecx oexooecx aa pa pooc po- coepepaaae poeoc epepao ooa, oope ca c eee poo pa eoo-x oeco (), coepax o 30 % pa. Texooec ooec e o ee "caoo" pa aaec oye ooeo oee aeceo poy (apep, ae c o oepae pa) ya ooec-ax (ex opox) ooeo cox o pep.

poeee cepeae cceoa poecca ee pa p opaoe PA "opeccox yoo" pooca pooco opoo y "opaa", oyaeoo oce ceapa eoo ooa oaa, o cee ee poo pa "opaa" peaa 70 % ye epe 10 - 15 , a "opeccooo yoa" epe 20 - 25 . o cyecy exoo c cooae cooo epeaoo poa, eoo paopoa pe ee pa cocae 4 - 10 .

Mpocoec aa po oaa yeee ca paepo ae pa.

Cpe aep ae pa coca 2 - 4 . Bepe oapyea oace ae pa p opaoe PA. o ocec e, o oepeo ooe oce ceapa ocaec oo ca eocepc p c paepo ac eee . Mooe epeecoe ycoe oece a opaaaey cpey cococye papy ecx (acopox) ce, ee pa aee oace ae pa.

Opaoa oooo opaa pooac PA, ycaoeo exooeco e epo opao ooa Hooyecoo oooo aoa (Capaoca oac).

Mooo poxoo epy ceapa, a ae ocyao PA. Opa ecoo pa poxo o ayoy y epe PA. paee o opao opaa cooa e exooece eoc. Teepaypa opaa aae opao cocaa 37 C, cooc - 21 T, cxooe coepae pa - 0,06 %. poeoe coepae coooo pa opae opee eoo poa o eco eoe [15].

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