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oc oaec ooc poopa, aee oo oc ec aeao cooec c apaee e o oc a epep poopa. a ce opea xooo yaca aaa poopa cooec c cyap eopo copoc ac oc, paecoe copoee xoa aa poopa ao. ae oc ec o aay poopa , a a ac oc yc ece c aao poopa, o ae oep ae yy p paae y xoy aaa - p yco, o aa poopa xoo eo ac paae. ae a oc ocyae aop ey caopo poopo. aopa ey poopo caopo oc, yeaea ee oepxoc ooo ce poopa, aeao oaec aa caopa. p o apaee e oc e peepeae ee ooy paecoe copoee aeaoo aaa caopa o cyae ae ao. aee opaoay oc epe xoo apyo apa aeeo cooa () epepao. aoap eocaoy oe aao poopa caopa p paoe aapaa eo cpeee paecoe copoee ao. o ooe ye oep ae ( ep) oc eoc cooa ep ooa oc.

CCO TEPATP ABE 1. aee. E., Eouo . B., Poee A. . epapx pepe eoc xo-exooecx, epoexooecx eoepeecx cce x eeo // X. exoo. 1987. 5. C. 5 - 13.

2. Cau . C., yeo A.. cepeec eo xeco exoo. M.:

X, 1992. 208 c.

3. Boo E. A. cee eo. M.: Haya, 1987. 234 c.

4. yn T. Peee eepx aa a BM. - M.: Mp, 1982. 238 c.

5. aayu M. A. Poopo-ycaoe aapa xo-apaeeco poeoc. .: X. 1983. 160 c.

6. aao A. M., uu A. ., Pyuu B.. poexaecoe ceppoae.

M.: Haya, 1998. 330 c.

7. A. c. 1768269 CCCP, M B 01 F 7/28. Poop aapa / M. A. poo, B. M.

epo, . B. Bopoe. Oy. 15.10.1992. . 38.

8. A. c. 1719045 CCCP, M B 01 F 7/28. Poop aapa / B. M. epo, E. C.

o, . B. Bopoe p. Oy. 15.03.1992. . 10.

9. aa 2000106386 a. P. Bcooaco oop poopo-yc aapa / A. . , M. A. poo, C. . apeao. pop. 14.03.2000.

10. am. 2165787 P M B 01 F 7/12. Poop aapa / M. A. poo, M. B.

Moacpc. Oy. 27.04.2001. . 12.

11. apae. A., Muxao. E. Teoaccooee aycece poecc aapa. M.: Maocpoee, 1973. 223 c.

12. A. c. 1674942 CCCP, M B 01 F 7/28. Poop aapa / B. M. epo, M.

A. poo, . B. Bopoe p. Oy. 07.09.1991. . 33.

13. am. 2155634 P, M B 01 F 7/00. Poop aapa / M. A. poo, B. M.

epo, . B. Bopoe p. Oy. 10.09.2000. . 25.

14. am. 2149713 P, M B 06 B 1/18. Aycec yae / M.

A. poo. Oy. 27.05.2000. . 15.

15. upuo A. . Texeca exaa oc aa: e. yo. C.:

-o CT, 1999. 895 c.

16. am. 21655292 P, M B 01 F 7/00. Poop aapa / B. M. epo, M.

A. poo, A. A. oe. Oy. 20.04.2001. . 11.

17. A. c. 1773469 CCCP, M B 01 F 7/28. Poop aapa / M. A. poo, B.

M. epo, . B. Bopoe p. Oy. 07.11.1992. . 41.

18. am. 2150318 P, M B 01 F 7/00. Poop aapa / A. A. oe, B.

M. epo, M. A. poo. Oy. 10.06.2000. . 16.

19. aa 2000105802 a. P. Poopo-yc aapa / A. . , M. A.

poo, C. . apeao. pop. 13.03.2000.

8. HTEHCA XMO-TEXHOOECX POECCOB BHEPEHE CAOHHX AAPATOB POTOPHOO TA B POBOCTBO CAOHHE AAPAT POTOPHOO TA CEHO COTC HTEHCA TAX POECCOB, A CEPPOBAHE, MPOBAHE, OMOEHA, CTPA, PACTBOPEHE PX. POOM BHEPEH APT B POMEHHOCT PETCTBET CAA EHHOCT OXMECX ATOPOB BEH, POTEAX BAPT. B TO ABE OCAH HA OT PMEHEH APT PA TEXHOOECX POECCOB.

8.1. POTOBEHE CMAOHO-OXAAX OCTE Heoxooc pooe yc cyecye o ox opacx poeoc. Oo oace pee yc ec x cooae aece caoo-oxaax oce - CO. Haoee pacpocpae opaoe eao peae ycoe CO. oyee cooaecex CO peye papao pee ooo cooeoo oopyoa [1 - 2].

oce o e ycox Mypcoo O "ao . B. . ea" a papaoaa ooea poea ycaoa oye CO a ae PA. caoa peaaea oye yc a "oa - aco" "aco oa", a ae pacope cxox ooeo CO oe.

caoa coco aa 1 yc aa 2 ycoa. yco yc epeaac ecepea epoe acoca, a oaao a pc.

8.1.1. peapeoe epeeae ocyecec p oo pao ea M a ce apopoa ca oyxo. B poecce pooe CO epec oe pooeo yc, aee PA eepaypa exooeco eoc 1.

Pacxo yc ee ooeo peypyec p oo ee BP 1-15.

Heoxoa eepaypa cec oepaec p oo eeooo eooea ae 1.

B aocx ycox peec yco ap T-2 T 38-1228-69, oopoo pooec 5 % yc. B aece opo oppo oaec pa ap apoaa coa.

caoa paoae cey opao. Boa aaec a 1 oopeaec "yx" apo o opeeeo eepayp. oce oopea a aaaec yco oee, cooecye aao oepa, pye ooe CO. ae ocyecec peapeoe epeeae eao M apopoae oyxo.

peapeo epeeaa cec oaec acoco H1 PA ooaeo opao, ooa CO ooc ccey paa. peapeo oe aeca CO peycope apyo oopa po yc apyo eepaoao paa CO ( pay).

B ycaoe peycopea pepy yc cyae, oa aeco oyaeo CO e cooecye exec yco, eoxoa oee ea opaoa yc. o ae eaec oepa cepcoc yc a eoxoo ypoe p eo xpae.

Aaoa ycaoa a cpoepoaa Mypcoo popocpoeoo aoa "popecc". e aeca CO a oc peyeo cpyea poee ca ycox oo aoa.

poocee ca pooc cpae eoc CO, oyeo a PA a cyecye oopyoa, p oee oca pea o pee. o epe PA CO poaa c oo oaco ea.

opo poee poocex ca a ce ceye a:

opypoae e pao papaoa aa oe; oop cpyeo oooa eo ca; poeee peapex ca poep yco pao, coco oopyoa, e oox apye oepa ..;

ycaoee pep ae cpyea; yoee opa poee ca;

poee ca CO; opaoa aa peyao ca [1].

cae CO ocyecoc a pax o e paox ecax. co ca yoeop cey peoa: pooc cyecyx a ao paoe ece poocex ycox e apye opao pao a ao oepa; cooecoa o yco cyaa cpyea;

aooa ca cya opaaaea a ao oepa oa poy exa; paa ca oepa a ocoo.

p poee ca a ooeo cae eoxoa ooepea cea cpyea cpaaex ap c e paoa ooe coc aooo, a ae pyx eopopyex yco ca, oope oy ec co peee. p ope ao oepa o cpyea poocex ca pyoocoac cey ooe. Bpaa oepa oa aoe cee oea e ca xapaepo ocaeo aa. copae pee ca, a ae oye oee ocoepx peyao paac accoa oepa. cac p o oepa c o epoo cooc peyeo cpyea.

Cao ocaca cpao coco, aeee eoa ycpae.

co pe ca poepc o aaa ca a paoe ece, epoec poepc coca aepaa aooo.

poocee ca e peoaa oooc eaeca pooce poecc, ece eo ax-o ee, a a o cao c pco eo apye.

cpye ca opa ooo poy, po OT, e ao ap opo oepa, aeo poa ep o ce apaepa. Peya epe cooa opao eooo ca cpyea.

ca CO pooc o eoe, oopa opoo ocaec paoe [1].

Ocoe cep ca pooc a copoc pea, oeceae cpe copoc cpyea, cooecyy ao ceecooc oe oepa opao peae.

poocee ca CO a oc peyeo cpyea pooc exe aoa. opo oop cpyeo poo aoco aopaop, cooec c peoa caapo. peapeo o peoea aaa oyc oc. yaac acoc oc-pe peyx cpyeo c cyeo CO a peeo epae, cocae ooo oo pe epoa cooc.

ae cacec opaaa peya opa 2-3 cpyea c a ooe e oca o cpeeo; a x pooa yee acoc oc pe. peea eoa ooa c oe pao p poee ca oy ocoepe ae. B oax o ycaoe acoc oc - pe pa: copoc pea = -1 ; oaa = 6 - ; ya pea = 1.

Ha pc. 8.1.2 pecaea acoc o pee oca pea ca P18 o ae oepxoc p opaoe ca 45. Caoo-oxaaa oc, pooea a PA ycox pao aa yeaa cooc pea cpee a 37,3 %. B ycox cao aa cooc pea yeaac cpee a 28,2 %.

hy 103, 0, 0,0,0,, 6 1 Pc. 8.1.2. acoc oca hy peo ca P18 o pee pea p oe ca 45 (Vp = 1 /c; Lp = 0,001 ; S = 0,02 /c) 1 - aoca CO; 2 - CO, pooea a PA p = 160 c-1;

3 - CO, pooea a PA p = 290 c-oee aeca CO a ce yee ee cepcoc, caoc, a ae aa ayceco aaoo ox p pooe PA, ooo oc cooc peyeo cpyea cpee o aoy a 30 %. B peyae oye ooo ooec e a Mypco popocpoeo aoe "popecc" cye 68,920 c. p. ( eax o 1992 .).

ooec e a ce oe cooc peyeo cpyea a Mypco O "ao . B. . ea" p cooa PA oe aeca CO a a oa coca 40,470 c. p. ( eax o 1992 .).

Heoxoo oa, o a eca poecca ypoa ooe e oaae oepxocoe aee ae oepxoco-ax eec, cax oepxocoe aee oaax ooe e a caoc ceppyeoc yc. Peooece coca yc ac, ocoo, o oc oepa cepco cepcoo a, a ae o oao. Ta a ae cyae oepa yc e peaa 5 % e ooc ceax oao, o oyaea yc cooecoaa o coca ooco oc.

8.2. OPAOTA MHOOOMOHEHTHX CMAOHX COCTABOB BPOTOPHOM MCHO-ABTAOHHOM AAPATE Oeo ocoeoc ycaex Poccco eepa a pyeo caox aepao ec o, o oee 90 % coyex caox aepao o ca, pooee a acax eoo pocxoe. coae, caoe aepa a eo ocoe o ox cyax e oea peoa cyaa, a a ecop a oe epyx pcao, cepa oooc oe yoax xapaepc. caoeo, o ac cao paec epaoococo pee paoo pe oeeo ca, eoo oec ee cpe [3]. poe oo, ca a eo ceeco ocoax, a cee, a opaoae, c coo yeoopooo ape opyae cpe, cece o opaaaeoc oococ ox x.

e p coepa eepoyo 0,3 - 0,5 / oa ee eo aax pyc, cece eo oa caoc epoo oocae aceex yo. Boa, coepaa aeoe co, opayec p pacae eepoyo, p oepa 3 - 5 / cepea oca p [4]. o caap opa oepa eepoyo e oa pea 0,05 / ooeax poxoceoo aae 0,3 / ooeax caapo-ooo ae. coocepcx ace, oope c ocoo oca coyex cao ace, a opa cocae 0,1 / [4].

B c c opoc epec cao aca paceoo ooo pocxoe, oope oy cooa aece aox ace. Tae aca e oc oaa paec oo opaaaeoc.

Aa oaa, o epce apaee ec cooae pacopo eopaecx oepo (ox pacopo eox cao - x cax ceo x cece) [5, 6], a a pacop oepo coepa oepxoco xec ae eeca (AB XAB) , ceoaeo, coco opoa oepxoc pe. Bco ypoe caox xapaepc oepx pacopo oycoaec oee coo eoeoc, a ae eco xeco aoc oepo poyo x ecpy, coca opayxc pax coe opoo pocxoe [7].

Oo ayax aa copeeo poo ec papaoa ox ooec eoacx caox aepao. Ta, apep, aeo poo coyex eeacx aox cpe oy cao-ace coca, pecae coo ooooee cepc oooo xapaepa, exoo pooe oopx ocoaa a cea ooeo. Oo poe p oye ax cao ec pooee cocaa c coo ooo caoc. Tooe oopyoae epeea x cpe epoeo eocaoo eo.

a oaa a cceoa, PA ec cooe aapao oye coocax cepcx cce. p oye caoo aca peyopx exao PA poy oyaec cooo aeca c apaa ep. B coca caoo aca xo o pacop caa ap, pacooe aco oec ooeo caaopo cpyyp, pca aoe.

Coooee o, caa ap aca coca 1 : 1 : 1.

cepe o pooe caoo aca pooc a ycaoe, ocao apapae 5.1. cpae aeca opao PA aao coca cea a aopaopo oaco eae. aecee oaae caoo aca, opaaaeoo PA aapae c oaco eao, pee a. 8.1.

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