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cpapoae eex ooeo op py PA yeae x xo a 20 % cae pyoeoc oepa a ce coee poecco ee cpa [64].

Aao e ocaec p cooa PA cpapoa aca oo oa, oexooo aca oo oex, apoocoepaeo oeca oxoo pooca peapao "Xoocac", cpoo cpapoa aey, aepa, ooo cpapoa aa ce cy, cpapoa eax aoo [64].

Beaae poca opaa eeooo oepaa PA ecpye poecc ooe ye pe oce aao oepa 2-3 paa [38].

eca poecca pacope aa oo cpe oaaa coy eoc PAM: pe pooe pacopa yeaec oee e a a opa; yeac oep cpa; cac epeece apa; caec ceecooc pooca eoo eapceoo peapaa [104, 105].

cepeae cceoa [66, 106, 107] oaa coy eoc pee PAM poee poecco acop oca yepoa oe ceppoa aoa oe.

a ce pao aa, eeppyeo PAM, ooo poeee poecca paee oo-cpoo cec a ooe p opao eepaype ae [108, 109]. B poecce paee o cpa eec x oepa o aoo aax a ce oeypo oeo y epe eay oepxoc ey ooeo oo-cpoo cec apo-ao ypo.

cooae aa po peoy yee eao oepxoc a ce oe ycpyx ypo, aoex ocoo apa cpa.

poaycecoe oece PAM a opaaaey y cpey aeo cococye yee copoc pea epoxoppoa o cpae c exaec epeeae ypayoo opaoo, a ae ooe ecpoa pea cea S-po-N-eaeeoapaaa a ce oee eoo peopaoa poayceco ep aaooe oece [110, 111].

1.3. AHA ATOPOB BOECTB HA ETEPOEHH CPE B CAOHHX AAPATAX POTOPHOO TA, POMEXAHECX POACTECX ETOB a ye oeaoc peyx apapaax, ycaox aapaax poopoo a opaaaea a eepoea cpea oepaec ooaopoy oec. aoap aoy ooopa o opao, pocxo eca XT. Moe cceoae ya cepeao eopeeco ae aop oec, ee eco APT [112 - 130]. cceoae aoo aopo oec oeoc e pecae coo coy aay. Cooc poe aaec o, o ce aop oec aoca py c pyo x aoece coae o aece e. Be oe cooyoc exaecx, poexaecx aycecx e aoec oe aop pao ooo, o o y e ec eoec pa aco po oo peyaa. p ye aoo aopa oec oeoc oaeo ao e y, o ae p cooa eoa cceoo aaa eoxoo ya aoc cex aopo, ex eco APT. He oaec cea aa peyao o cceoa oca aopo oec APT, oyex a ecoo eco e x ye pee.

pee e epe aay cceoa aopo oec, oae p pao APT a aoee pacpocpaeo ocpyo e - paao poopo aapae. Caapa cxea APT oaaa a pc. 1.3.1. p pao aapaa aaec ceye. Opaaaea oc oaec o aee caoeo epe xoo apyo 1 ooc poopa 2, poxo epe aa poopa 3, aa caopa 4, paoy aepy 5 xo aapaa epe xoo apyo 6. p pae poopa eo aa epoec coaa c aaa caopa. Bxo aaa caopa, oc copaec paoe aepe poaec xooy apyy. B epo pee, oa aa poopa epep ceo caopa, ooc poopa aee opacae, a p coee aaa poopa c aao caopa aee a opo poeyo pee cpacaec peyae oo aa caopa pacpocpaec yc ae. Copoc oc aae caopa ec epeeo eo.

p pacpocpae aae caopa yca ooo ae, ce a oae paopee yc oeoo ("opaeoo") ae, a a coeee aao poopa caopa aepoc oaa oc aa caopa pocxo oo a ce paoo ee paaoo aopa ey poopo caopo. Oe oc, oe aa caopa, cpec xoy aaa, epoe c coa pacae ape oc, o ae aa. aaoe yp pacy p oec yca oeoo ae cxoac ycpy p yee ae aae caopa. ac aaox ypo occ paoy aepy.

4 2 A A h h lc lp A - A Rp Rc R a Pc. 1.3.1. Cxea ycaooo aapaa poopoo a B c c e, o copoc ooa oc aae caopa ea ee yya, oo ec ypye. p pae poopa aope ey poopo caopo oa oe coe ape. Paoe oepxoc poopa caopa oecy a y eepoey cpey a ce exaecoo oaa, coaa coe cpeae coe yc.

yca ae copoc ooa oc, eca aa, paa ypyeoc, yape o yye cpy o cxoa aaox ypo, coe coe cpeae ape - o aop oec a y eepoey cpey, oeae ye, oepoa, oa cooa oe eoc pao APT eca XT.

O epx cceoaee poecco e, poeax APT, .

Bec. o eo e, oco aopo, oecea eca XT, ec ooee opaaaeo oc cooacox oea, eeppyex ocooapee, ooce y poopa caopa [131, 132]. o e oe pepac aop pao [62, 133, 134]. a oe yae oo oae aapaax yc aecoo ae. pae ae, o Becy, oca 108 a.

Aapy ey poxooo cee epepaeo pope, [135] oy opyy pacea aco yca oe cyae, oa co aao caopa e pao cy aao poopa:

= (1.3.1) e - ao o ee ce ;, - co aao poope caope cooeceo; - acoa pae poopa, o/c.

a opya coacyec c a M. A. aaya [136, 137].

Ocoy acoy yca aecoo ae, yaex aa caopa, ceye pacca o opye [138 - 145]:

= (1.3.2) B eoopx cyax oeaec acy yooo ae a acoe oe ee, oao, oce epe a o ocoo aco pxoc o 70 o 80 % yoo ep.

O ax aopo oec, oece a ocoe oxece poecc APT, c yca ae aae caopa paoe aepe. oy acey oceo opooe oeco pao, o oaae aoc eooaoc aa.

B paoe [142] ey ae aae caopa opee, cxo aeao paao cocax copoc ooa, = + (1.3.3) Taeaa cocaa copoc caec ocoo, a a yoa copoc poopa - ocoa ea. Paaa cocaa copoc ac o pacxoa pecaea e cyco. Cycoaa acoc pacxoa ooa oy pecaee acoc oa poxooo cee oopao ope.

opya (1.3.3) aeceo opaae ecee poecc o yya ae APT. poe oo, aop [142] peepea e oc caeoc oc, a paep popee poeyo ey a poope pa ey coo.

Aao oxo cea paoe [146], e peepea caeoc oc oep a pee, acao ay epeeoo ae oyea opya = (1.3.4) e - epee pacxo epe oo oepce, 3/c; - eoopa ocoa, aca o ooc oc paepo oepc.

acoc ay yca ae o pacxoa oc aoea opye - = l (1.3.5) e - ooc oc, ; - payc ee oepxoc poopa, ; - yoa -copoc poopa, ; - o pacxo pa pacxo, ;, - pa coa aao, ;, - oeco aao poope caope; - payc peco ooc, oae a ce pae poopa, , [147].

He oe oo, a opao ooc poopa, oopy oc ocoo aeaec o aee, o ocyae a ce epoeoo ea, oae ooc. o yepee apyae ooee o epapoc cooc ooa.

oooe ee aaoc aopa pao [148, 149], oao, ocyc ooa ooa oc aapaa. poe oo, p ooc aoeo oc poope =, aya ae opacae o ecoeoc, o ec eooo.

Pacxo oc epe aapa ( epe oo oepce caopa) B. . ae pecae e [146]:

- = + - - (1.3.6) + ec - ae pacxoa cooeceo p coaax epepx aaax. oee opya (1.3.6) oeac, o cc ee e ec [70].

aaya M. A. [142] acoc pacxoa ee = - (1.3.7) e = ; - cpeee aee pacxoa, ; - aya ee pacxoa, ; epo oea APT, c.

Bepe o oeeo [64, 142], o y opeeec ae o acoca ece cee cpey cocay p xoe aapa.

Bey ay ycaooo ae pacxo oc epe aa caopa opeee copoc ooa oc aae ao ee oa poxooo cee aaa caopa paecoo copoe a xoe aa caopa.

Copoc ee oc epe pepae (aa poopa - aop - aa caopa) paoe [150] opeeec a ocoe aoa coxpae ooeoo epaa epy:

+ = + 1+ - (1.3.8) 1 e - aee a xoe xoe oyopa, a; - copoc oc a xoe 1 xoe oyopa, /c; 1 - ooc oc a xoe xoe oyopa, /3; ea copoc ooa oc a xoe aaa poopa p paoepo pae poopa, /c; - cya oeo ecx copoe oyopa.

B o ypae e yea peea acoc paecoo copoe oyopa. oe ecx copoe poco cypyc peooe, o o oco o oe pee p xapaepx ooex aaa poopa ooceo aaa caopa.

oee oo, e ypaee (1.3.8), eee peao ecaeo oc oyope ocae ecaoapoe ypaee epy [151, 152]:

+ = (1.3.9) e = + + - a oyopa, .

acoc oea paecoo copoe o copoc pecaec e [153]:

= + (1.3.10) e - oe paecoo copoe apao oac acoc paecx oep o copoc ooa; = - pep Peoca;

- oe paecx oep; = - copoc ycaoeoc ee p =1; - ae paec aep, .

paee (1.3.9) yoca eopeecoo cceoa pee pecaeo epaepo e:

= 1- (1.3.11) e k - oe ycpee yca o cee ooa; = - pep ooxpooc; = ; = ; =.

paee (1.3.11) oocc epea ypae a Pa oe e apaypax e peaec. P pao oce eoa pee oo ypae [- 161]. Aa x pao oaae, o eo eapa, aaecx pe, aeapa paec a o o e peya e oo oo opee poaece apaep oo acoo pae.

paee (1.3.9) eca epceo oca ee o oc aae caopa. cepeae ocopa yco ae aae caopa oepa paoc paoo y o aeaecoy oepoa cee oc epe pepae aapaa. aeee ycoepecoae aeaeco oe ee ooa peao oc APT o oeo A. . [162 - 184]. paee (1.3.9) peopaoao y 1 + + = +, (1.3.12) e = + 1+ - ea a oyopa, yaa e eeppyeoo epeeoo ae a ecaoape poexaece poecc oyope aapaa, ; = ; = ; - oa xooo oepc oyopa (xooo oepc aaa caopa), 2; - oa xooo oepc oyopa (xooo oepc aaa poopa), 2.

Bopo e pao ac ypae (1.3.12.) opaae e epoex c ae. Heoxoo ae, o ey epoeoo ae o opye epa opeee e payc ee oepxoc, a cpe payc aaa poopa = -. Payc poopa oe aecoa ypae (1.3.12) oo, ec ooc poopa ec oa. Xo epea ae xo ypaee a ocoa ea, peaoc o a e ee epeey cocay, xapaep oopo acoee pe oa e opeee.

B epaepo e ypaee (1.3.12) acaec a + + = 1+ e = ; = ; = ; =.

B o ypae cocaea apaepo, ax paepoc copoc, o ecoe oocoae o po poeao. oee cooa aece aee cpee copoc oc a epo T (1.3.10). Co e poeae ec cc poaooo oea. o acy aopa, poao oe oe opaa e epoex c, o o cocae ex apaepo, a e cax c epoe aee.

aea oepa ypae (1.3.12) a poeea C. .

apeao y [185 - 188]:

- = + +, (1.3.13) oopo ye e oo epoee c, o ca opca, ecya a oo oc aae poopa.

B epaepo e ypaee (1.3.13) acaec c yeo ox pepe [188]:

- 1- 1+ = + + (1.3.14) 1- 1+ e = - pep opoca; = - poao oe;

= 1 +1 - oe ecaoapoc.

Hecoeo, ooe ao aeaecy oe (1.3.14) ec ye ox eo, xo e ex cyeceoo a peya pee. He coce oo eee oea ecaoapoc, oeeo ypaee (1.3.13), o e aeo aeceoo oeceoo aa.

Bo cex ypaex, ocax eee peao oc epe oyop, pcycye apaep - epeeoe paecoe copoee, oopoe ac o oa poxooo cee oyopa [162]:

= -1, (1.3.15) e - aoa oa poxooo cee pepae, 2; - oe, opeee a H. E. yocoo [153].

e eo aaa ecaoapx poexaecx poecco oo A. .

y [162] yec e eaecx xapaepc ee oc oyope a oe paecoo copoe:

= 1-. (1.3.16) Heoxoo oe, o poe copoc ooa oc, copoc pae poopa eoepecx apaepo aapaa, a paecoe copoee oaae oc oc, oa pceooo aapoo co pye ece xapaepc oc.

acoc ee oa poxooo cee oeoo aaa caopa aapaa eo ec ocoooaae, ooy oe cceoae aa ya poexaece aooepoc pao APT c pee o aa. oca coco oo opoca oo ye oo eca pee, o a oe a poea papaoaa ocaoo xopoo c eoo pooo, o ocoaeo eopeeco ao. Ocoo a peee o aa cea M.

A. aay, B. . ae, A. . p. [60, 66, 70, 136, 142, 154, 162, 189].

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