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3 4 1 a) a a n = n = dn = d) b ) PC. 7.3.2. BCOOACTOTH MHOOPH POTOPH MCHOABTAOHH AAPAT: A - POOH PAPE; - PABEPTA OOBO OBEPXHOCT POTOPA; B - PABEPTA OOBO OBEPXHOCT CTATOPA Bea acoc o apaepo aapaa pea eo pao paa cy, eaey aaoe: < <1 1. Ta a eoc yca poopoaa ee, pao yoeo pe aaa - ee, o paee o pee oex yco o pax po aapaa a c opyo apae cocae ey = 1. p o oye acaoo oeca paeex o pee yco, aoe oeco po n pao eo ac coo e + 1. ec b.- paccoe opyo apae ey coce aaa. p o ey b eoxoo pa epae, opeeeo oeo : =, e paec yco 1 1 < < 1.

H paa aaoa opeeea yco eoo opoe oc p pacxoe aao poopa caopa, a epx paa opeeea yco aca oeca aao, a oeco aao ao py opeee acoy eeppyex yco ce aapao eo.

Ta a oeco po aao aapae oee ooo oe oca ecox eco, a aa aoo pa eeppy yc, paeee o pee, o acoa eepa yco ae paccopeo ocpy aeo e, e caapx aapaax.

ocpy APT, oopx ao ee ae o cycoaoy, oo, o ye pe ae ae, .e. > eoxoo a ooe yc pape aae caopa. o ocaec p coee aaa caopa c yx aao poopa, oopo aee ee a ce pacax yc, coaaex epoeo co (pc. 7.3.3). Paccoe o xoy poopa, a oopo ceye cea yxo aa ee poopa, pao =. coa ocaooo yca pape eoxoo, o ceee yxx aao poope o eo cee aao caope [10].

bk Rp bp PC. 7.3.3. CAOHH AAPAT POTOPHOO TA C XM AHAAM B POTOPE Peoac pe pao aapaa oo peaoa, ec aapa cpo ooe acc co aycecx oea. Ta a copoc ooa aae caopa ea, o eecoopao cooa eecy ep ooa opaaaeo cpe eeppoa aycecx oea. Haoee poc ae ae eeppoa aycecx oea yec ooe oc ec poaec yae a ocoo cca . oaa B.

ocoo [11]. p ec acaoo yae (oo aa ocoo cca) aaec o, o p aea a acy ooa oc oa oyaec a oo cocex aco. eec p cxe pee ac.

p oea ooo oc ac pocxo epoec cp xpe o c oo, o c pyo copo ac. axpe a oex copoax ac a epoece yc ae, oope pacpocpac co copoc ya.

Haoee e ec pe pao p paece coceo aco oea ac acoe xpeopaoa. Hacpoa ac peoac c oea cpy a pae ocyecec peypoo copoc cee cpy oopo pacco ey aco coo, oppy oo oc.

C e eca poecco ypoa a papaoaa ocpy poopoo aapaa, oopo aece ooeoo coa oea cooa acy, oeaey ooo opaaaeo cpe. Haoee paoa, ec oop o yee oep ayceco ep yee ecoc opao, eco pacooe ac ec aa caopa. Baae caopa opaaaea cpea ee coy copoc ee, oo cpe coppoa.

Hacpoy acaoo yae aae caopa oo ocyec oopo eoepecx ecx apaepo ac epeeee ac o paao oc aaa caopa [12]. Cxea ao ocpy APT oaaa a pc. 7.3.4.

A - A yp. aca A A Pc. 7.3.4. ycao aapa poopoo a c ypy aca peyeca pacooe ac aae caopa ceye: aa caopa ec aoee o pepae, a ooy oee ao ac aapaa; c opaaaea cpea poxo epe aa caopa oepaec oec oea, eeppyex ypyo aco, eoo oee, opaeo cea aaa caopa, o po yee ooc ayceco ep. Ta opao, cpea paccapaeo ocpy aapaa opaaaec ao oee aaa caopa, o po yee ooc ayceco ep, y coa aycecx oea pepaee aapaa ypyo aco, oeaeo ooo. pao ao ocpy peoaco pee eoxoo o ycoe paeca aco o, eeppyeo aco, aco o, eeppyeo pepaee aapaa x apo.

Cocea acoa ac opeeec o opye =, (7.3.1) e - oe poopoaoc, ac o cocoa pee ac; a ac, ; - oa ac, ; E - oy pooo ypyoc aepaa ac, a; - ooc aepaa ac, /3.

aee oea oo oopa o ceao epaype [11].

ppaa acoy oea aae caopa coceo acoe ac, oyae =, (7.3.2) e =1 - p aypax ce.

Ta opao, ocpeco appoa eoepec pe apaepa aapa acpaaec a peoac pe.

O ye oe eoc pao APT ec yeee ooc aycecoo o ycoee eo cpyyp. oo aa caopa o coo op pacoaa x oco opao.

Ha peoea ocpy aao caopa e ap pacxoxc aao o xooo yaca o yo paao oc [13]. p o eoepece apaep aapaa o axoc ceye coooe:

- = (7.3.3) e - payc ypee ee ce caopa, ; - a aao caopa o ypee cee, ; =1 - p aypax ce; - yo aoa aao paao oc.

p ao coe aa caopa epeceac ey coo (ca apa p k = 1) yp ce caopa cxoc oapo a ee cee caopa (pc. 7.3.5).

a ce caopa o paao oc = -.

9 8 7 6 5 a) A A l l Rc RcA - A ) A - A ) 8 Pc. 7.3.5. ycao aapa poopoo a c ao aaa p o pa xooo yaca aaa caopa a payce pa xooo yaca a payce pa ey coo. epeceee aao caopa ey coo cxoee x oapo a xoe paoy aepy cococye pa ypyeoc ooo opaaaeo cpe, o po eca xo-exooecx poecco.

8 k = K= k = 3 k = K= K= k = l K= b 6 Pc. 7.3.6. Paepa poopa caopa c ao aaa R R R R R Paoc ey apy ype payco caopa, a aao o xope ypeeo payca b yo ooe pacxoxc aao o paao oc, axoc ey coo coooe =. B aece ocox e e a apaepa, oo oy p e peeo apaepa. Paccop o ooee a opeo pepe. acpoa aece ocox e , oyae p p pax. Ha pc. 7.3.6 oaa pae paepo cee poopa caopa p pax. a o pcya, p yee opacae a aaa caopa co epecee aao ey coo. ecoeo yea eooo, a a p o opaca aap aapaa. Pay peoae e aaa caopa eoxoo oca paeco paoc aaa caopa e yaeo o, o opaoac coe o. a o - =, e = - acoa eeppyeo o, ; - yoa copoc poopa, ;

- co aao poope.

B o cyae oax epecee aao caopa opayc yoc ae o. Boa, xoa aaa caopa, opaaec o ce paoe aep o yo. Ec oo y paoe aep paao apae =, o opaea o ce paoe aep oa oaae o aao caopa. Ta opao, aaax caopa opayc acoe o c oo ooc aycecoo o, a o, a eco, ecpye eo-accooee poecc.

7 1 6 7 5 3 A A 2 2 A - A Pc. 7.3.7. ycao aapa poopoo a c ype caopo oa, o oc eaeoo peyaa, opeae oyc ec peo "cea ce aoopo". B ae cyae eae peya - o oee eoc PA, a "cea ce aoopo" peaaec eee ocpy poop-caop. Caop 5 pacoaaec yp poopa 4, opaaaea oc oaec epe xoo apyo 2 paoy aepy oc epe xoo apyo 3 ypee ooc caopa (pc. 7.3.7). p pao APT coxpaec epoecoe coaee aao poopa 6 c aao caopa 7. Ta a aa caopa apae acpey py pyy, o ooc caopa pocxo oepa aycecx oea. o aa caopa pacoaac cpoo apo py pya eoxoo, o x co o e. Ta a c opaaaea oc poxo epe ype ooc caopa, o oepa aycecx oea ao oee cococye eca xo-exooecx poecco [14].

Ec y aao caopa pa pao paycy ypee ooc caopa, o ooo ooee coe o ooc caopa. o ocaec p paoc aaa caopa paycy ooc caopa pao e yaeo o. caoo ye o ooc caopa eoxoo, o co aao caope o pao cy aao poope.

p pae poopa a oc, poxoy epe eo aa, ecye epoea ca, coaa pooaee, paccaea o opye epa [15]:

=, (7.3.4) e - ooc oc, ; - yoa copoc poopa, c-1; - cpe payc poopa, .

peopae pee pooae, ae ooc poopa eoxoo coc ycoe >. cxo oo yco, pae <, (7.3.5) e - aee a xoe aapa.

oo, o oe poxoee oc epe aa poopa, x o ao o yo paao oc =. (7.3.6) cxo eop oacx acoco, oa epoex acocax peoey o o yo, oop ec yo ooe eopa copoc cee oc o paao po p pae poopa.

oec pae eoa oe eoc pao APT a ce cooa ooex aycecx yaee ec ocpy aaa caopa e coa c pec peoaopa (pc.

7.3.8). aa caopa oe e coa ee ccyeo ac a pecx peoaopa, coeex c . Paoa aaa caopa aece Pc. 7.3.8.

eepaopa aycecx oea ocoaa a coo ycao aapa yceoc ocx ee oooy ae. To poopoo a c ec p eoo ee ae y op cpy, oo xpe aaa aeo ee coe apaee. Taeao caopa e coa pacooe pec peoaop c pooo peoaopa pope oo paccapa a oe, acoa oopoo ac o eo aepa [16].

7.3.2. OHCTPTBHEMETO COBEPEHCTBOBAH CAOHHX AAPATOB POTOPHOO TA poe coa yco ooe aooeaex peoacx e eca XT ec pye pe oe ecpyeo oec APT. a pea oocc yeee ypya opaaaeo cpe pee opao APT.

coy ae ocpye pe, papaoaa ocpy APT, cxea oopo peea a pc. 7.3.9. APT coep opyc 1 c apyo ooa 2 ooa cpe, cooco pacooee e poop 4 c aaa 5 caop 6 c aaa 7. Ha ypee oyce oeoo cyaeoc aaa 8 oe cpae cy 9, a oopx yeaec copoy ep oyca, a a apyo oyce oeoo cyaeoc aaa 8 - ee cpa cya 9 cpae aa 10.

Cpae cy 9 cpae aa 10 cococy ypya cpe.

cxo aoa coxpae ep, oc cpec po oec oeo aa o aeey y. oy pecye cpaa aa, o po oe cox yc ooe, cpy xpe p oea epxe ac cpao a ypya ooa oc [17].

3 6 2 8 1 1 9 Pc. 7.3.9. ycao aapa poopoo a c oeco paoe aepo Ta a cpaa aa yeae y, poxo oc, o cooeceo yeaec pe opao APT. B oeco oeo aae yeaec copoc ooa cece yee poxooo cee aa cpax cyo, o ecpye exooece poecc.

eee ypya opaaaeo oc ocaec ae a ce oe aao caopa e oceoaex cye pacpe. Taa opa aao caopa oeceae eee copoc oc: cye oa oe, a pacpe - ee. p o oa ypyee yca c pooo apae eopa copoce. o ae yeee ooceo copoc oea ac eepoeo cpe. eee ooceo copoc oea yeae yo co yeae acaee ape a ace, o po eca poecco ypoa, ceppoa accooea.

poe oo, p cpe ooa p peo pacpe aaa paaec poaeca aa, ecpya poexaece accooee poecc [18].

opa pacpe aaa caopa e oeo poo ceee cye ooceo py pya oecea peoe eee apae ooa cpe, ca opaoae acox o cococy ecoy cee ooo aaax caopa (pc. 7.3.10).

Coee yco paeca yaco pacpe cye po ooe, p opeeex ycox, cox o ccee cyee-pacpee.

coe, eoxooe ooe cox o oe paeo e ceyeo ypae:

= =, = (7.3.7) e - a yaca cye, ; - a yaca pacpe, ; c - copoc ya opaaaeo cpee, /c; - ocoa acoa eeppyeo o, ; - yoa -copoc poopa, ; - co aao poope; =1.

B oe cox o yec ac eepoeo cpe ycopc copoy yoce ae aec copoy yo ae. e yea acoy ey copoc oea ac ooceo yec cpe ecpy poexaece accooee poecc.

Ce epoapa a aeae oc ooc poopa poaa ee epe aa poopa caopa oo oc a ce oa op aao.

oc, axoac poope yacye ex yx o: 1) paao - a ce epeaa ae ey xo xo apya; 2) aeao - a ce pae poopa (e pocaa). B o cyae cyap eop copoc ac oc apae o eoop yo paao oc. ce cpeeo paecoo copoe eoxoo aa poope caope opepoa cooec c cyap eopo copoc ac oc.

3 4 5 7 6 A A 2 A - A a b PC. 7.3.10. CAOHH AAPAT POTOPHOO TA C CEHM PACPEHM AHAOB CTATOPA Pc. 7.3.11. opa aao poopa caopa Ha pc. 7.3.11 oaa oepe pape poopa caopa, aa oopx opepoa cooec c eopo copoc oc a xox yacax.

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