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Oea aa o opya (5.3.2) - (5.3.5) ee co ocoeoc pyoc, a a ac ocoo o , a - o. Bea p >1 /c, paec e eec a ce pocaa oc ooceo oepxoc poopa opeeec p eex ocpyx apaepax APT ea ae paoe aepe ( ) aee ooc poopa ( ). poe oo, appyc pax epaax: 0 < <1, a - o y o ce oe e.

pep e ae pae oe oppe c ecoc aa, xapaepyeo ayo yca ae, yaeoo aao ypo [14 - 16]. ec aa cyeceo ac o e eeoo paceoo oea.

pep aa ec aa opaa pae oeceoaecee apaep aa. pep aa x xapaepy poaecy aycecy ocaoy. B oocex cceoax ycaoeo, o acy e yapoo ae, eeppyeoo aao ypo, aaec p [13 - 16]. ec aa xapaepye pacpocpaee aaox ypo exooeco oee ec epo pocpaceo ooc ep.

Ha pecaec, o aea, caae E. Ayop [18] o eoycoc peepoo yee ooce pep oac cpae. oee ooo pecae o eco ape aa APT, ceye xapaepoa ee eo yapoo ae, o ee oea aaox opaoa.

Oocee apaep a ae eoxo, a a o xapaepy eoc yae.

Haoee epce ec opoa coco cceoa aa oo- eo cea, coeee c epee aycecx poaecx apaepo aaooo o. o coco xopoo apeoeoa ce o ox cceoax aa [19 - 27].

epe a peaa oo eoa peeo APT cea aopa pao [19]. p oopapoa aa aae caopa ycaoeo, o cooyoc aaox ypo opaye coeopay "pyy", yy apaeo e caopa, oopa ae papyaec. poaapoa ooe co oopa, aop [19] cea o, o ocyaeoe ee ypa pocxo co copoc 20 /c, o o eo copoc pae apyo oepxoc poopa. yp oca oo paepa epe 100 c oce oea ooo coee aao. Maca payc ypo ocae 200 . Cxoae ypo pocxo ce aaa caopa, a ae aaec oop poc ypo o payca 50 - 80 , pe apaee ocyaeoo e eec. a y ocyaeoo e ypa e peae 2-3 . epo yca ypo coca 75 c, o cooecoao epay ey acya aaooo ya o c ocopaa. p oo ooepooo yoe oye ocopa yco, pecppyex p cax ece. Haaoc e cep ce ee ooo a epep aao, a peeo poeyo ey ae coca 75 c. B cpee oae oa ca a 5 o epep. Bo opo cep aaoc aeo eee co ce, .e. epooc ooe cee p oopo ca ypa ee e. Ceoe c coaa o pee c yco yapoo ae p cxoa ypa.

Aapy ae cae [19] oo cea o, o ooee aaa caopa eo pe pao ee. Bpe, a oopoe pocxo opae aaa caopa, pao pee eo apa cocae 100 c. To ec, ype ocae x paepo o oe, oa pooo ape aaa caopa. Bpe ypa aeo ee ocooo epoa oea ae APT. Bpe - pooeoc ypa = 1- 1 1 eoc epoa ocox - oea ooa = 1. Ceoaeo, ype aepae co e o oo, a aa poopa caopa o coay aee aae caopa opace, a o a, o ype poco occ ooo aaa caopa. coae, paoe [19] e poc ae o poaec apaepa ooa oc APT o cao oc.

Ha poeeo cceoae aa aae caopa APT a PA oopaec aycec eoa [28, 29]. oopapoae aaox opaoa ocyec epe ceaoe ooo pe PA c aoo o "aepoy oy". eoc ceooo yca coa cea cocaa 2 c.

cepe poo a oopooo oe p eepaypax 12 - 60 C.

Heoxoo oe, o caop PA oaa, .e. ooee aaa caopa eo aeoy aepy o oe 3. p > - pae aa ca [30].

Aa ooco oaa, o acep, coco aaox ypo, ooo oae ecoo cee cee aaa caopa, a oopy apae eop copoc ooa oc aa oe op aaa caopa. Ceee aaooo acepa o ope ec co, aoa oc oopoo, a pao, apaea paao oc aaa caopa. opy coa aao acep popeae cece oo, o o epe yee aaooo oea ce aaa caopa pecy eo paoepoy pocy, a oo oc pacae eo o aaa. ooy, p pao aa ppaee oea aaooo acepa ooo oo o oc aaa caopa, a o oeaoc paoe [19].

Haoa a oc coa e peaa 5,5 . aao acep aae oppoac a pacco 1,0 - 1,5 o xoa aa caopa. Haoa ooc aaooo acepa aaac a pacco 3,0 - 3,5 o epee po aaa caopa, o cooecoao ooe = 1. ec eoxoo oe, o aoee paa poaeca aa aaec p ee oc epe aa c = 1 [31].

Byae ae aaooo acepa p ocoo ocee pyo aepo oaa, o aao acep axoc ocoo a oo ece, e epeeac o aay caopa. B oe pe o ocoo ee co oypa a "po" ooo eyooy apy, oepaeoy cpye o. Aapy aaeoe ee, oo cea o, o aaoe yp cxoac, ocoo, aae caopa, a paoy aepy occ eooe x oeco. B oaax PA paca ape oepaec aa yaco ooa oc aae caopa. Haoee xapaepe c aaooo acepa pecae a pc. 5.3.1.

OTHOCT ABTAOHHOO ACTEPA XAPATEPOBA HECOM ABTA . A O OTMEEHO BE, HEC ABTA MOET OPEETC A O OEM, TA AOMO CEEH. HA PC. 5.3.2 - 5.3.4 PECTABEH PA ABCMOCT HECA ABTA O OEPEHM CEEHM BO OC AHAA CTATOPA. T PBE XAPATEPT PACPEEEHE OTHOCT ABTAOHHOO ACTEPA O AHA CTATOPA. A HAAO OOPHAT A PHTA TOA HA EPEHE POME AHAA CTATOPA.

o a epay xapaepcy pa aa paccop cpe o oey aaooo acepa ec aa coaco opye (5.3.1). B aece eeoo paceoo oea opye (5.3.1) pa apaeee c coo po, pao coe pe aaa caopa, a o, pao aoe e aaooo acepa, a a ee paep o a o cpae c o o, o epoe, oyaee aa yooe aee, oo o ca yp oo oea oco o ee ca, , o e pe, paep o pea paep aaooo ypa [32]. apaeee pacoaa a opao, o eo ep coaa c epo aaooo acepa.

o peyaa cepeax cceoa ocpoe pa acoc eca aa o pepe eoepecx ceco oyex eoo aaa paepoce e, x a pae aa (pc.

5.3.5 5.3.6).

cepeae pe apocpyc acoc a:

- 1 -16 - - -1 1 - = e = ; = ; = = - = + ;, - coa -aaa caopa, ; - yoa copoc poopa, ; - e payc poopa, ; aee ooc poopa paoe aepe, a.

ecoc aa oo oceo oxapaepoa eo yca yapoo ae, yaeoo aao ypo oe cxoa yca. o aee pecppy p oo pooa, oaa caee ca a ocopa oep. epe pecppy popo oo ycao p, oop ye ocea oea ae, eeppyee PA.

R = 6 = = 6 = 6 = = 1 6 = 1 = = = = = 6 = = 1 6 = = = = = = = = PC. 5.3.1. XAPATEPHE OTOCHM ABTAOHHOO ACTEPA K X Pc. 5.3.2. Pacpeeee ooc aaooo acepa o paao oc aaa caopa: Sh = 57, = 264 c-1:

1 - Re = 53 000, P = 1,26 a.; 2 - Re = 47 000, P = 0,98 a.;

3 - Re = 46 200, P = 1,02 a.

K X Pc. 5.3.3. Pacpeeee ooc aaooo acepa o paao oc aaa caopa: Re = 46 200; P = 0,98 a.;

1 - Rp = 29,0 /c; 2 - Rp = 26,4 /c; 3 - Rp= 24,0 /c; 4 - Rp = 21,4 /c K X Pc. 5.3.4. Pacpeeee ooc aaooo acepa o paao oc aaa caopa: Re = 53 000; P = 1,26 a.

1 - Rp = 24,0 /c;; 2 - Rp = 29,0 /c; 3 - Rp = 21,4 /c;

4 - Rp = 26,4 /c; 5 - Rp = 18,8 /c 1,0,0,0,2 4 0,Pc. 5.3.5. pa acoc eca aa o pepe Re, Sh,,, = = 6 1 - = 2 - = = 3 - = 6 6 4 - = 1 1,0,3 0,2 6 0,l 1 Pc. 5.3.6. pa acoc eca aa o pepe Re, Sh,,. Re = 44 200, = 1 - Sh = 64; 2 - Sh = 68; 3 - Sh = 72; 4 - Sh = 76; 5 Sh = poo pecppye yapoe aee ypo aaoo acepe, oope cxoac paec cao.

aao acep aae oppoac, oa ea yca yapoo ae ocae coeo acaoo ae p eex eoepecx apaepax PA. pa acoce yca yapoo ae ae, ycpeeoo a epo oea aaooo acepa o copoc epepa aaa caopa oaa a pc. 5.3.7. Heoop a acoc oc epoeoe aee, o pepo p = 16 aaec pocaae oc ooceo poopa ppaee epoeoo ae pepaaec (pc. 5.3.8).

pe a pc. 5.3.7 oe aooep. aa aae paac p yee ecoo apaepa - yapoo ae , ceoaeo, poca Pmax. ae, p oce opeeeoo ae Pmax, aa paaec a ce cecoo apaepa - oeca aaox ypo , ceoaeo, poca. ae, o oax a pa epc apaep ox aaox opaoa, a a peye occ PA.

U 6 =0.l l Rp, /c Pc. 5.3.7. pa acoce ay yco ape a pooe (U) cpeeo oea aaooo acepa, a epo o copoc epepa aaa caopa: 1 - =1 6 a (Re = 53 000); 2 - = a (Re = 46 200); 3 aecea acoc U( ) [33]:

= 0,07 , = 0,002 , = 0,005 , = 36, = P 1,1,1,0,0, Rp, /c Pc. 5.3.8. pa acoce cpeeo epeaa ae o yoo copoc poopa:

1 - = 1 2 - = 1 3 - = Ha pc. 5.3.7 peea pa 3, oyea o a [33]. cceoa, poeee aopo pao [33] oepa peee acoc.

eoc eeppyex aycecx oea oc oo ae oe o ooe ay aaox yco aye eeppyeo o. Xapaepe ocopa aaox yco ae x coooee c eeppyeo oo oaa a pc. 5.3.9.

Ocopa oaa, o aaoe yp aa cxoac cpay e oce opaoa, a opaeo paopeeo yce ae oce oo, a aee oc aae opaca.

Ha pc. 5.3.10 oaa pa acoc =. a acoc apocpyec opyo - +1661 - =, (5.7) 1- - - ec < -166 1 - o =.

Ba apaepo ec ea caecoo ae paoe aepe aae caopa PA, a a oa e a ecoc pae aa. B paoe [16] pee pa acoc ape a pooe, poopoaoo ocpaeoy aycecoy ae, o ae aepe, oope e acy p aex 1 - =. Ha cceoa oaa, o p oee cox aex acy ceac copoy yee P p yee (pc. 5.3.11). o oo oc e, o p yee yeaec P cpeee copoee pepae PA. Aaoe acoc oye a oea aaooo acepa (pc. 5.3.12).

o opocy o eepayp opaaaeo oc a ecoc pae aa epaypx coax cpeac poopee ae. Ta, paoe [34] ecoc aa oea o ee eca aeoo pa, oeeoo oy aa. Bec pa p aaoo oec yeaec c yeee eepayp oc.

Aop pao [35 - 37] oaa, o ecoc cooce yeaec p yee eepayp. p cceoa aa oe p eepaype 298 - aya aaox yco yeaec a 70 %.

Coepeo poopeae eyaa a oye peya paoax [26, 38]. oapye acy po aex ac p aa oe, oo cpe epexxopco yepoe p yee eepayp. o, apep acy po, cooecye peo 50 C.

= = = Pc. 5.3.9. Ocopa aaox yco Pc. 5.3.10. acoc ooceo ay aaox yco o pep Sh.

1 - Re = 58 000; 2 - Re = 53 000; 3 - Re = 49 000; 4 - Re = 46 U.P. 6 1 1 1 16 Pc. 5.3.11. acoc ecoc aa o ae paoe aepe:

1 Rp = 25,1 /c; 2 Rp = 22,5 /c; 3 Rp = 18,8 /c; 4 Rp = 15,1 /c;

5 Rp = 12,6 /c; 6 Rp = 9,90 /c; 7 Rp = 6,30 /c V P. 6 1 PC. 5.3.12. ABCMOCT OEMA ABTAOHHOO ACTEPA OT ABEH BPAOE AMEPE OBBAH V 1 t Pc. 5.3.13. acoc oea aaooo acepa o eepayp o ecoc aa PA o eepayp a cceoaa [33]. ec acy acoc ay aaox yca o eepayp pxoc, pepo, a eepaypy pay 50 C. cepeae cceoa oepa oey o poopoaoc ooc eeco ep cpe aaooy ae a oeo ca axoa ypa, yy [33]. cxo o oe, ae peoaaec, o aa payc aaox apoe pae 10-. Oao, ao ae, o exa cepea a ocpoea a opao, o oy peapeo apea o 90 C, a ae o epe oca poo epe aaox yco. Ta opao, oa peapeo a oeea o o e, aocoepae o o aeo ee p oca, e aocoepae o p eepaype, oopa e eepayp e. apoe aa, ceoaeo, o oe ee, ee, cooeceo, aaox ypo. aaoe yp, a opao, e ea py pyy, e pocxoo coo ooe yco.

B cy a x poope, eoxoo o yo acoc aa o eepayp. o yeo e eepayp oc a cpe oe aaooo acepa. cepe pooc a cee oopooo oe.

Hape o pocxo eocpeceo epo ae cepeaoo cea, oa pypoaa o ayoy oypy epe a aapa. o epe apea pooac oocea aaox opaoa.

pa, pecaee a pc. 5.3.13, oaa, o acoc cpeeo oea aaooo acepa o eepayp ee cpea xapaep. Ocoeo aee acy oea aaooo acepa p eepaype 25 C =. o aee copoc epep ec opoo aaa poca aaooo acepa, ooy acy acoc ec oee pae.

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