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16. epo- aoceapa - paeee eepoeo cpe a ce paoc epo- aopoooc a.

17. epoope - epeoc ac epeco oe cece a paoex apo y epo o a.

18. epoococ - epeeee oc o ceo apa o ece poeo C.

19. e a (epopaec yap) - eepa yapx o oc p ee epeco pooe.

20. oo-, aepo-, paaoo-, yo-, epo-, aoxece e xece pepae eeca o ece cooecyeo oye, a ae a o ece epecoo oa (epo).

21. eoepec eoa e - ooee opa epa aaeoc eeca o ece eeo ae aoopo.

22. Mao- epocp - eee paepo ea, ae eee eo aaeoc eopa epo epeco oe.

23. Aooea - ooee oea ccee a ce peopaoa ep ocooo e oeaey.

24. Peoac - opacae ay yex oea p coae aco yex oea c coceo acoo oeaeo cce.

oee opoo c eco cyoc paec pee X oo oaoc epaype [3 - 9, 17].

Aapy a. 1.1. eoxoo oe, o ocee p eoa eca peoaa ae-o epoece poecc, poeae XTC. Haoee oea ooo a a ee XTA, a a opaaaey cpey. oea eeo XTA aco aa pa [21], oea opaaaeo cpee aycec oea oa. Meo eca, ocoe a eepa oea opaaaeo cpee c aoee epce [3 - 11, 22 - 57]. acca ayceco exooeco aapayp x cpe aoee e poeoo pee ca poaece yae , acoc, ycaoe aapa poopoo a.

Aycece oea paa a payoe (acoa f < 20 ), yoe (f = - 1 ), ypayoe ( = 1 - 1 ), epyoe ( >1 ). pee poeoc aoee aco coyc oea c acoa yooo ypayooo aaoo. p oec a XT aycece oea oy cooa ceyx cyax [31]:

- cy (poecc ocyecec c peee oea);

- eca (aycece oea yea copoc poecca);

- oa (aycece oea a yopoee poecca).

Haoee aco aycece oea coy eca XT. B poexaecx poeccax aycece oea ecpy ae poecc a: ocaae, oa, ocaee, ceppoae, ypoae, epeeae, eoaee, eaa. B eox poeccax - apeae, oxaee, apae, capee, opee. B accooex poeccax - pcaa, cyy, pacopee, ayxae, acop, acop, cpa, eaae. B exaecx poeccax - cpypoae, e, opoae, ceppoae [3].

ecpyee ece aycecx oea oycoeo, epy oepe, ea opoo opa (ee ea) [3, 31]: aa; yca aox ypo; aycece ee; oepxoce e; paaooe aee;

oepooope c (epecca, Coca, Occeea, aycecoo ae). o cee eca exaecx poecco aycece coco ecoo pa peocxo epoae [3].

B ayce paa oce, pece cepece o acoc o a yae oepxoc. o ee ay oea ycoo e a o ecoeo ao ay o oeo ay. pa cyae o oeo ay c yape o.

apoeca oa ec eopeeco acpae. Ha pae peaoa yee oo aco eooo ooy cep oea ec eooxpoaec e yo poo aaoe aco.

B acoc o aoeoo p pao ecoo ea, paa ceye aycecx yaee: eoepece, aocpoe, epoaece, poaece. Oca ax poex yaee, eop, pacey x cyaa oceo ooe oeco epayp [3, 22, 24 31]. a yaee ee co peyeca eoca.

Paccop oee opoo poaece yae. O cpaeo eee pooee o ooe py a yaee [35]. B poaecx yaex opaoae aycecx oea pocxo a ce ep ooa oc, o e peye ceax, cox epoex epeaox cce.

Cyecye oeco poaecx peopaoaee: o pocex ooox, o ceax, p pao oopx ocoa a opeeeo eco ee. Haoee poc yepca c oooe, aae epae pepae ooa. Cep oea ax yaee ec oaco. O e pyoaapo ooo aapaype pyopooax [27, 32 - 35, 41, 58, 59].

B poaeco acao yaee cpy oc, ea coa c oo copoc, yapec ocpy poy eaeco ac, oopa oyaec oeec a oo cocex aco [36, 41]. axpe a oex copoax ac a epoece yc ae, pacpocpaec co copoc ya. p coe oax coooe oc coaec ooe aycecoe oe. yae eo paoa p copoc cee oee /c.

cy epcex poaecx yaee ceye oec yae a "coo - ya" c opoa ooo, papaaaee Haapeo A. . O xopoo apeoeoa ce p opaoe cce a "oc - oc" [49 - 51].

Bxpee peopaoae paoa o py opaoa xpe p paaeo e oc pe, ya oa oc aeao.

eeppoae oea pocxo a ce yco ae, oax p opaoa xpe.

B eepaope aa [41] oycoopa poop paaec caope ao e op. Paoe oepxoc poopa caopa oe epoxoa. p pae poopa aope ey poopo caopo oa poxp aa.

Bcooe ycpoca opao x cpe oaa ce cyepapye aapa. eca aa oae p poxoe epe aa ceao op oea ceax aaopo [22, 60].

O epcex o poaecx yaee c ycaoe aapa poopoo a, oope coepa poop caop c aaa. p pae poopa, eo aa epoec coaa c aaa caopa. B peyae oo opaaaeo oc eeppyc yc ae papee, oae aa, eoacae yca, paece yap, paa ypyeoc. B epaype a aapaa ac ecoo aa. Haoee aco cpeac ae, a poopo-ycao aapa (PA) poop aapa c oye ooa (PAM). B ae 7 ye ceaa eaa acca oox aapao. oee o aae oe APT - ycaoe aapa poopoo a. p cce a opee pep pee APT poeoc ye aa x a, a o aa epaypx coax.

1.2. HTEHCA XMO-TEXHOOECX POECCOB B CAOHHX AAPATAX POTOPHOO TA ycaoe aapa poopoo a coyc opao ax cce, a "oc - oc", "oc - epoe eo" "a - oc". aoo opeoo exooecoo poecca cyecy opeeee peoe e ocpyoo exooecoo oope APT.

ycaoe aapa poopoo a pax o oa a peee poexaecx eoaccooex poeccax a ce pooo cepa aopo oec:

- exaecoe oece a ac eepoeo cpe, aaeec yapx, cpeax cpax apyax oaax c pao ac APT;

- poaecoe oece, paaeec ox cox apex oc, pao ypyeoc ycax ae copoc ooa oc;

- poaycecoe oece a oc ocyecec a ce eoacax yca ae, eco aa, yapx o opx eex aycecx eo.

pa oop, oop ye cea e, oae ocoe oac pee APT x oeae oooc.

1.2.1. HTEHCA POECCOB CEPPOBAH OMOEHA CCEH APT a PA xopoo apeoeoa ce poecce oye cepc aocao, peex caa ceecx ayyo paoo aae cepc aoee ayyo [61]. o papaoao exoo oya cepc aocao eooa "", "", ooa c pa opaaae yaopa. p o pooeoc poecca opacae o 3 paa, 4-5 pa yeaec pe paccaa cepc o cpae c paee peeo exooe. pooc oyaex ayyo opace a 30 - 50 %. PA peec aepe pocyca oocx aepao pacee yo ooo p epepaoe pyx oocx aepao [62]. peea exoo ooe ye poe cooa ayayp oye apoa, oc eo aeco c pacxo epoep a pao c 95 B/ a oy oeco e o 25 B/a oy PA.

ceppoae ooea cxoo cyce aeo cpe PA pooce ocepaa ooe ye xo eeoo poya oy cepcoc ac 15 - 20 [63].

peee PA ooo cooca eoc pooceoo a oc aeco ycaex x eapcex op cyceooo a. Oe apa pee cc 6 - 10 pa, oe apa ep - 3 - 5 pa [64].

eeo-oa cyce, oepya aaoo opaoe PAM oaea eoy cec, oae pooc a cae pacee e eoa [65, 66].

Ha pyx oepcx apax cae acc ac pooc a apeae , cocoe yxopycoo cece poopo caeo a a PA [67]. Hacea oyxo acca oce opao PA, oaac p aocepo ae, aeo yeaec oee a ce pacpxc ypo oyxa yp acc. caoa poo 600 /, opeea ooc 11 B.

pooco eepeo, coyex cocae oo ceecx ox cpec, peye ooo ooa coo cee ooea. cooae APT a PAM oeceae cyeceoe yeee cpoa cy pa oo oc yeae oc eepeo [68, 69].

epce apaee epee ec cooae cepcoox cce. cooae aecex yeayx cyce ooe ye pacxo aya a 20 - 25 %. PAM cya e ycpoco oye yoo-acx ac [70].

ceppoae cep PAM peec oye ocepeoo aca, xapaepyeoo oo accoc, popaoc ocyce aaxa cep [70].

cooae PAM oye eeoocoo ea ooe ooc e oa aa, a pao ae ceppoae PAM [66, 71]. ece ooe o pee PA aopacoo poeoc [72].

1.2.2. HTEHCA POECCA MPOBAH PA ecpye poecc ee ceecx oepo pacopo a ce ypoa pacopa oepa [61].

peee PA pooe cepc aca pooce acoaoex ayyo ooe oy cooycoy yc c aca paepo eee 70 . Ta e yc, oyaea o eco exoo ee ac paepo 400 [64].

peee PA pooce eapcex ae (xooo, capo, ea aaoo ..) ooo cyeceo copa apa pyoo pya, oc aeco oooo poya (cpe paep cepco a - 2,5 ) copa pe pooe ae 4 paa [73 - 75].

Xece oa oyoaoo ec oo oy eo c co exooec cyao coca. cooae PA oye ycox coocepcx yc ac, ox eo, ooo ye pooc eoa a 15 - 30 % [65].

B coox ayax ee eco oeoe coepae o e oex ecx coe, oycoeoe poecca epeo, epea, xpae oopea oa. cooae aece oa ceao pooex ooayx yc ec o ex eoo, oox pe y poey [76, 77].

Oo peex exoo cooa oax ao cpee ooc ec exoo c cooae PA [78, 79]. ooex oo ao ooc p ca ooayo yc oya cyece ooec e, oee a 3 - 5 % ce cc apx eec (CO, ca, oco aoa) aocepy [76]. Opaoa oo-ayo yc c oaee a ee oceyee cae poex oex ooo ye ox aax oepa oco aoa 2 - 5 pa, a oepa cepcoo apa 2-3 paa [80 - 85].

eca poecca oye pacopa oapaa, coyeoo oe pooc ya yepa aoee, ae peee PA, ooe a ae cepoo epoeoo acoca [86]. Bpe pooe pacopa o peaaeo exoo copaaec o 1,5 paa. eaec a 2 % oaae yepa oaa. pooee yc oaooo cpa, oecaopoo aca oyoa oe c oo acoca-cepaopa ae ao xopoe peya [87].

O ax ee exoo oeo o y c popoae exapoae oec, cyaa oopx pec ooace yc c ec xapaepca: coo cepcoc, caoc, ocyce ceeea oay. p cooa PAM pooe paox oce a axax Pocc eopycc copac xo cpo ox yo pooopyoa. aeo copac aape poco [88 98, 66, 70].

PA coyec ooea acepa ooa. aaooe oece e oo cococye oe cepcoc yc, o yoae pee poopa. p ooea ooa 90 % pox apo e paep o 2 [99]. cepcoc aoea, oyaeoo p oo PA a paa e, e p oo aaoo ooeaopa [100, 101].

Oo oace pee yc ec x cooae aece caoo-oxaax oce (CO). oyee cooaecex CO peye papao pee ooo cooeoo oopyoa. peee PAM oye CO cococye oe x aeca, a ae cae epoapa poecce x pooca. cepcoc CO ocae 0,8 - 1,2 , o yeae cooc peyeo cpyea cpee a 30 % oae coy opao oepxoc [66, 70, 102, 103].

1.2.3. HTEHCA MACCOOMEHHX POECCOB epce apaee cooa PA ec cpapoae poyo poooecoo cea, apep, apoa oacc. p pyoo opaoe cpe, poxoe o ayoy oypy PA eoc opao, yaoc oc 100 % xoa apoa oce epex o opao [63].

Moe eapcee eeca oya eoa cpapoa cp paceoo ooo pocxoe. peee PA poecce cpapoa cya oce cpo peapeo eeo (o 3 - 5 ) oeyoo ee ox ooe oy cpa c coo aoc paa cpee [64].

peee PA ecpye poecc cpapoa aa (aoyo co) aox opeo (aooece ooopaoa a cx aoaacoo ya). Cee ee opacae c 49 o 77 %, a pe cpapoa yeaec c o 0,5 [64].

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