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2) epeoc cpaea eeoy ooey, axoeyc epo aepae;

3) aoece pacope peyae poea xeco pea ecoo pacope c eae ooeo;

4) epeoc eeoo ooea pae paea epo o a;

5) oo eeoo ooea po ooa pacope.

poecc pacope ec poce cyae poecca cpapoa, oa epoe eo oopoo coco eeca, ooc pacopoo pacopee. o pacopee oa eepoee pea, poeae ey ep eeco oc, oope a epexo oo eeca pacop. Beeco, epexoee pacop, oapye c yec oc eee ceo poecca pacope [38].

Beaae aa poecc ee epx e epx ac ea - oce. o cpapoae cceax epoe eo - oc oa poecc ceeoo ee pacopee ooo ecox ooeo epoo ea [37].

Ha poecc epeoca eeca : opa paep ac epoo ea; eo ypeee cpoee; paep, pacooee op apo (coe, ope, ape); xec coca ac epoo ea.

o xapaepy oapoa c oc epe eeca paec a ceye :

1) coe epe ea (pacopee);

2) opce ea, oopx eaeoe eeco coepc pacope a ceax op (yooe eee, cop, o oe);

3) opce ea, coepae cee eae ep aepa (yooe eee epo a);

4) opce ea, cocoe ayxa;

5) coe opce ea, cae epece eopa (eoepecoe cpapoae, pacopee) [39].

xapaepc cox e coyc ae o x ope, paepax xeco cocae, a opcx e yac ocoeoc x ypeeo cpoe, oope xapaepyc paepa eoepe op.

Ha exa epeoca eeca opax e poaec pe epeea o a coooee paepo op oey oc. Ec paep oey oc aeo ee op, o eeco epeocc o exay oeo y, ec paep oey oc paepa op oeypo ye.

Ha poecc cpa e ae paep epx ac. eecoopao poo poecc c e aca, peapeo e aepa.

Pacope cpae o yoeop cey yco:

1) aa pacopoc epo pacopee;

2) coa ceeoc;

3) co oe pacpeee;

4) co oe y;

5) eocaeeoc;

6) a oppooa aoc;

7) a eepaypa aepa;

8) aa ococ;

9) a eoeoc coa eyec [39].

B xeco, apaeeco, eexeco, eo pyx opacx poeoc pooe pacpocpaee oy ae cpae a oa, o cp, epexxopc yepo, eo, xopoop, pxope, aeo, o p, e p.

p cpapoa ccee epoe eo - oc poecc oe poac cey ca:

1) eeyoo - copoc poecca opeeec copoc y oee p yco, o oepa pacope opax a oepxoc epoo aepaa ee eo oepa oee;

2) ypyoo - copoc poecca opeeec copoc y opax eeca;

3) ypee eeco - p yco, o opc aepa oaae ooceo o xeco aoc, a oepa pacope opax paa oepa oee;

4) ee eeco - peae ee ooceo coy xecy aoc, cece eo pea poeae a oepxoc opcoo aepaa p yco, o copoc pea pye copoc ceo poecca.

Copoc poecca cpapoa oo pyec copoc poea cao eeo ca, oopo poeccax cpapoa ec ca ooa ooa pacope cpapoaoo eoo ooea. B o cyae copoc poecca opeeec copoc y, a ye co ec paoc oepa [37].

B ycox pacope pacopeoe eeco oo peooea oe aoe copoee yooo co. eec, pacopxc o yooy exay, ea oo copoe oe aeo yeac c yeee copoc e oc ooceo ac eeca, o cococye opaca copoc pacope. aooepoc poecca pacope cyeceo e ec, ec pacopc aepa pecae coo exaecy cec pacopx epacopx ac.

Paa p a poecca pacope:

- ecoe pacopee, p oopo cxooe epoe eeco e ee coeo xecoo cocaa;

- xecoe pacopee, p oopo ccee epoe eo - oc poeae eepoea xeca pea;

- epoxecoe pacopee poeae ycox, oa poeccy coycye epeoc epecx papo.

B ycox pocoo ecoo pacope epy oepe ooaac eeco co oc, pae oepxoc pacope. C opacae oepa pee ee oepa ace co ep cocooc ocpa eeco, ooy aeee pacopee cao c ooo eeca oac oepxoc pacope. Mexao aoo ooa ec oeypa oea y. Coaco aoy a, ooc yooo oa po poopoaa paey oepa:

= - = -, (4.4.1) e - acca ypyeo eeca, ; - oa oepxoc pacope, 2;

- oe y, 2/c; - pae oepa apae y; pooeoc y, c.

Ocoo ao ecoo pacope, copypoa A. H.

yape, acaec e = -, (4.4.2) e - oepa ace; - oepa pacopa; - oe copoc pacope - accooa, /c.

Coaco eoo oe ca ea, ocoao a oe yooo co Hepca, oe accooa ac o oea y o e a oepxoc oapyx a [40, 41]:

=, (4.4.3) e - oa e, .

o oe ooe oepxoc aooo oaa (eepaoo) X, ypyee yca ocoo oo oepxoc paea a cey oc, oe accooa ac o pee ooe op oc:

=, (4.4.4) e - pe oaa ooe oepxoc a, c.

cpapoa cceax "epoe - oc" ycox ecoo cee coocopocx peax e a ooceo py pya ypaee o pacey oea accooa aca e [42 - 46]:

- = 6, (4.4.5) e = - pep pa; - cca ep, B/; - aeca oc, ; - ooc oc, /3.

Coco eca accooex poecco cceax c epo ao o exay oec a ey yooo epeoca e a p py [38]:

1) coco, ocoae a pa oepxoc a;

2) coco, ocoae a yee copoc oea epx ac oc;

3) opoae coco.

eca accooex poecco APT ceye oec opoa cocoa. Pae oepxoc oaa a pocxo a ce papye epx ac c opaoae ox oepxoce o exay, paccopeoy apapae 4.3. Mapoypyee yca copoc ooa oc p yco oe aa caopa, poyca aaox ypo c opaoae yyx cpye cococy pa ox paeo copoce oc ooceo epx ac. yoap e ooe oc poa op ap epoo ea a oy yy. Bce aop oec cococy ocooy ooe oepxoc aooo oaa a ce oec coocopocx poooo oc, oope opayc p ycax aaox ypo oecx yyx cpy. Booe e oo yc oo ox op oc, o cp yooo co c oepxoc ac. Tao e ocaec a ce "oaoo" cooepeecoo oec, cpeoo pocpace pee.

Paccop ey epoecoo pacope pacope pooe ocepco cce ac. ya ca o cyae epeea. Tao opaa poecca aoee xapaepe ycaoo a ae APT. Pacopee, a pao, ocyecec pyoo oype, coepae APT, a ecoo o oceoaeo ecox aapaax p pooo opaa poecca.

paee aepaoo aaca oe pecaeo e [38, 44]:

= + 1-, (4.4.6) e = ; = ; - eye ae oepa acc pacopeoo eeca oee oc, /3, 3; - aaa oepa cxoa acca pacopeoo eeca oee oc, /3, 3; - oe oc, 3.

paee e ee = - - 1-, (4.4.7) e - oe, ac o op ac; - ooc pacopeoo eeca, /3; = - ; - xapaep paep ac o pacope poecce pacope, ; - oepa ace, /3.

opeee y eoxoo opee y , oope opeec o ypae:

= ; (4.4.8) 1- = - - 1-, (4.4.9) e - y pacpeee ac o paepa o poecca pacope.

ae ypae opee acoc.

4.4.2. MOEPOBAHE POECCA PACTBOPEH TBEPOO B OCT P OPAOTE B CAOHHOM AAPATE POTOPHOO TA Pacopee epx ac oc p opaoe APT pocxo oopeeo c poecco ceppoa p exaeco oae ac c pao oepxoc poopa caopa o exay, ocaoy apapae 4.3. poecc papye peecye ocoo ca poecca pacope, a a exaec oa poee ac pocxo a ocpx poax xoa aaa poopa xoa aa caopa. oce pacaa pepaee a e ac, ac ac, oopa oaaac aae caopa oepaec ecoy ooaopoy oec, aey ce ypyee yca copoc ooa oc p yco oe aa caopa, yape cepece o p ycax yye cpy p cxoa aaox ooce. ac ac, oopa ocaac aae poopa oepaec exaecoy oec p ceye coee aaa poopa c aao caopa, ec ee paep paao apae oe e aopa y, oop oe po aca p op aaa caopa. Ta opao, oco aopa, ecpy poecc pacope epx ac oc c ycoe ycaooe oece.

ycoe oece ooa oc a pacopey acy aaoo oec coocopocoo ypyeoo ooa aae epeeoo cee oypa. Xaoece ypyee yya copoc coe oc coa oe coe yc a oepxoc epo ac, o cococye yee e yooo co, ycae eo ooc, oeceae po cee oc oepxoc epo ac. Mexa pacope epo ac yco ooe paec e oaec o exaa pacope epo ac co pao ypyeo ooe.

ycaooe oece a epy acy oc p ycax eax aaox ypo aaec coa coocopocx ooo oc y oepxoc ac. aaoe yp o axoc eocpeceo oc o epo ac, a a yapa oa p ycax ypa cpo ayxae p pacpocpae oc. Xo ayxae ae yapo oe po poopoao pacco o eo oepxoc, ep o aae o apao acoc ye a pacco o oepxoc ypa, peae oa acc oa o pyx ypo ayxae.

Bcoocopoce oo oc coa oe coe ape a oepxoc ac ae yea ey yooo co.

aaoe yp, axoec oepxoc epo ac cxoac c opaoae yyo cpy. yya cpya opepoaa apae oepxoc epo ac. Paep epx ac p pacope APT oy ea epae 0,1 - 5 . Payc aaooo ypa p pacpe axoc epae 0,1 - 0,5 . Ta opao, aca payc ypa ee coep c paepa epx ac, axoxc oc.

aep yyo cpy pepo 10 pa ee acaoo payca ypa.

Heoxoo yec, o copoc yyo cpy ocae co epo ceyy ee ece ooo ec epoo ea.

Paccop exa yyoo oec a epy acy, ey oce pa. Ha oepxoc epoo ea cea ec ee aoe apoe yp, oeppyec poeeax oepxoc ac. p oec ycoo papee oc ype pacpec, a p oe ae oc ype cxoaec c opaoae yyo cpy, poae epoe eo (pc. 4.4.1, a). "Oco" cxoyeoc ypa cya apoa ooe aaox ypo. ece aaooo ypa, axoeoc oepxoc epo ac, e oaec o epaccopeoo exaa, o exaecoe papyee oepxoc ac ecoo ee (pc. 4.4.1, ).

a) ) PC. 4.4.1. CXEMA MEXAHMA ECTB MTBHO CTP HA OBEPXHOCT TBEPO ACT P CXOBAH ABTAOHHOO PA eca poecca pacope epo ac p yyo oec ocaec a a ce yee oa oepxoc ac, a a ce yee o yooo co a oepxoc ac. Haoee oece a yo co ye ocyecc p acaeo oepxoc aoo ec yyo cpy.

ea poecca pacope epx ac oc p eco cee ox paeax copoc e a opeeec ypaee (4.4.5):

- = 6.

Oco cooee o ypae, opeee ecoc poecca pacope ey oea accooa, ec ea cca ep a ey acc eepoeo o cec ey pee. Ta a ecoc pacope, ocoo, ac o eeco ep ooa oc p ee ooa epe pepae aapaa aaoo ep aae caopa, o yey ep a ey oea eepoeo oc oo aca e = + +, (4.4.10) e,, - oe, yae eoc cooa yco, ycaoo yyo cocax cyapo cca ep eeapo oee oc, eeo aa caopa. oe,, opeec p cpaeo aae pacex cepeax ax.

B opye (4.4.10) oyeo caaeoe cca ep aope, a a pacopec ac poxo epe aa poopa aa caopa eocpeceo, e oaa aop, oe aa x ac, paep oopx ee e aopa, oaae aop ey poopo caopo.

Pace opyy (4.4.10):

= + 1- + + Ocooe e a cca ep oaae ea ycope ooa oc aae caopa, aee aae caopa ea acaoo payca aaooo ypa. Bea ycope ooa oc , cooeceo, eeppyeoe aee ocoo ac o oeo epeaa ae. aee aae caopa pae, paoe ae paoe aepe. pa a pc. 4.4.2 4.4.ocpoe p ceo pee ypae (4.4.5) oaa acoc oea accooa o copoc coee aao poopa caopa.

B aece oeoo pa poecc pacope NaCl oe p = .

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