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p ee epx ac aaec x aa - co oocyea poecc ee epeecoo coco eeca. Aa cococy ae ae e, a eee cpyyp pcaeco pee eeca, aca aopa oepxoc poepxocx coe ac, pae ye, oae p papye, eee a xecx ce a oepxoc yx cox eeca, epoa pye poecc [31].

Cce aa poecca ee oaae, o cxoo po poe ac ec e exaeca ep, oopa pacxoyec a paoy o peooe c oeypoo pe epecoo aoec, o peooe c aoec yp ac a ce xecx ce, a aoee ep ypyx eopa. ep ypyx eopa aco epexo acece eopa, oope epexo eoy ep ayypyc cpyypo oycoey ccey ypex ape. Ccea ypex ape xapaepyec eea cpyyp epo ac, oope aoap aceco eopa oy aaac opeeeo ece, pe x ep oeppyec ocae ae, eoxooo ooe papa opaoa pope [31].

o ece exaeco apy oeea ep pacxoyec a coae ypyx acecx eopa acax. aceca eopa ee opy ac, apyae yopoeoc pcaeco pee opaye coa.

ep acecx eopa p cee eoppyeo yc aco epexo eo, aco yeae ype ep eaex ac.

o yeee ypee ep ac oaec yeee o ac oo ypee ep, oopa ae ce ep aoec poac, ep pcaeco pee, ep epox oooe oo aoo, ep po- apoeeo cpyyp aepaa ..

pya eopa ac xapaepyec aeee x pe, paaxc apoeeo. p eoopo peeo, oeo oepa pe ace opayec a y oa pea c paepo oe pecoo. o ee papye ac peaca ypyx ape ocoax. ep ypyo eopa epexo ep o opaoao oepxoc, eo ype ep ac [31].

B APT oco aopa ee c pacaae, cpae yap.

ape apy oa a p exaeco oae epx ace c pao oepxoc APT py c pyo, a a ce yyx oec p pao aa. ceppoae ocyecec o cpee oo coeaec c py XT: ooeae, cpapoae, pacopee. ae ocoe ypae eop ee.

eeca ep epoo ea oe yapa opeeec a =, (4.3.3) e m - acca ea, ; Vy - copoc e ea oe yapa, /c.

eeca ep epoo ea oce yapa:

=, (4.3.4) e V - copoc ea oce yapa, /c.

Ooee = - aaec oeo occaoe ac o ppo caaxc e [28].

eeca ep, epeaa ey oe yapa, paa = - = 1- (4.3.5) ap apya ea epe xpye aepa, y oopx oce c caeco apy ocycye ocaoa eopa [28]. ax e paoy oopaoo papye opee cooec c eope a-pea:

=, (4.3.6) e - pee pooc aepaa, a; - oe papyaeoo ea, 3; Ey - oy ypyoc, a.

papye epo ac p yape eoxoo coa yco.

cxo oo coooe, coy (4.3.5) (4.3.6) opee papyay copoc p yape epo ac [28]:

= 1- (4.3.7) B APT epe ac papyac ocoo a ce aoec c y poopa c y caopa. Copoc, c oopo y poopa yape o ace, paa = (4.3.8) 1 e - yoa copoc poopa, c-1; - payc ypee oepxoc poopa, .

Copoc, c oopo epa aca eae aaa poopa caaec c y caopa, paccaec a = +, (4.3.9) e = - ocpeea copoc cee aaa poopa oe coee c aao caopa, /c; 1 = + ; = ; Rp - apy payc poopa, ; pa poyooo aaa poopa caopa, ; = - yo poe paoecyeo eopa copoc Vyc a oc eopa copoc Vyp.

p oo yoo copoc pae copoc cee oo peepe, a e a epoeo copoc, a ce pocaa oc ooc poopa.

peea opya cpaea ac, paep oopx oe e aopa ey poopo caopo.

Ec a epy acy ecye yya cpy, o copoc yyo cpy p aa oo a o opye (4.1.23).

p paepe ac ee e aopa ey poopo caopo ac x papyaec a ce cox ape [35]:

= - cepecx ac, a;

= - pecx ac, a;

= - copoc ca, /c; - aeca oc oc, ac.

ox ce Peoca cooe apee a ceax pecx ac =, e - ooc oc, /3, d - ey aep ac, .

p pae ac coo ooe x ae oa epoee ape:

= - cepecx ac;

= 1 - pecx ac ;

e - yoa copoc pae ac, c-1; T - ooc aepaa ac, /3.

Bce paccye pee cya papye eocpeceo epx ac.

Cya papye aoepao e paccapac y ooceo eox ae c c ey aca aoepae (o 10-5 a o 10-2 a) [35].

Ha poecc papye e o cpee coca oc: oc, ooc, xec coca. p yee ae oc ooc caec ea yapx oec. Hae oc oepxoco-ax eec cae pooc ac, ocae c cee cococye ceppoa ac. Pacaee ece oc popeax ae oeae papyee ac.

4.3.2. AHA POECCA PAPEH ACT PAHO OPM Paccop poecc papye epx ac p oae x c poopo caopo epo poxoe epe pepae aapaa. Bee opae a apaep ac, poopa caopa:

1) TBEPOCT ACT OCTATOHO BCOA, ACTECE PE EOPMA CATC, TBEPOCT MATEPAA POTOPA CTATOPA OE TBEPOCT ACT;

2) CBOOHOE COAPEHE C EMEHTAM POTOPA CTATOPA, ATAE C OTOOM O A HE PBOT PAPEH ACT;

3) HAO PAMEP ACT D OEH T MEHE PH AP AHAA POTOPA <, TA A B POTBHOM CAE POOET ABA AAPATA ACTAM;

4) HAMEH PAMEP ACT B OEH T OE BEH AOPA ME POTOPOM CTATOPOM, >, TA A B POTBHOM CAE ACTA POCOT EPE AAPAT;

5) PBHA POTOPA CTATOPA HE TBAETC, PAC APEH POMO POTOPA CTATOPA R ECOHEHO MA, R << D;

6) P COBMEEH AHAOB POTOPA CTATOPA, MEXAHECOM BOECTB OBEPAETC TOO OHA ACTA.

aaa yco ceppoa opa ac e pae peae po. Bae po cee epo ac oax oaa c poa aao poopa caopa.

Paccop yco ceppoa p pax apaax po cee ac oax oaa.

Bapuam 1. po cee epo ac oe oaa c poopo caopo ec opyoc (pc. 4.3.1, a). o apa paccope paoe [36] eo copypoa ceye yco ceppoa:

90 - 2 + 90 + 2, (4.3.10) e = arccos(1 - 2h/d), p 0 h/d 0,5; = 90 p 0,5 h/d 1; (4.3.11) = 0 p 0 < (h + )/d 0,5; = - -1 p 0,5 (h + )/d 1.

Bapuam 2. po cee epo ac oe oaa c poopo caopo ec paocopo peyoo (pc. 4.3.1).

yc oe pee copocoe c poopo caopo ooee ac ye poo, apaee e ooa oc, ecyeo epe ac e e a ooee ac. Toa ae ypae oeo c, ecyx co copo poopa (. B) a acy ooceo caopa (. A):

= + ; (4.3.12) = -. (4.3.13) ec T = Pf - ca pe, H; P - pea co copo poopa, H; - aop ey poopo caopo, ; l - paccoe ey cpe cea aao poopa caopa oe oaa, ; f - oe pe.

p MP > MT aca ye paac ooceo o A, oa paoecye o c P T e yy apae acpey py pyy, ye oc paeco MP = MT. coe epeee ac o ece c F aec e < - +. (4.3.14) oa aca ae ooee, a oaao a pc. 4.3.1, a ee yy ecoa e pooooo apaee c:

= = 6 = (4.3.15) Ec T' P', o pocxo papyee ac p coe yco 1, o oyaec ye eeapx aeaecx peopaoa ypae (4.3.15). Ec T' < P' - aca aaec. Baae ac oe poo a aa poopa, a aa caopa, acoc o ooe ac. Ec aca aaec aa poopa, o ooo ee papyee p oopo oae c poopo caopo p oe eoxooo yco 1. Ec aca aaec aa caopa, o pocxo poco ac.

Bapuam 3. po cee epo ac oe oaa c poopo caopo ec poyoo (pc. 4.3.2). ec oo ecoo ooe ac, xapaepyex yo ey copoo aaa poopa copoo ac. Haaoe ooee ac p = 0 oaao a pc. 4.3.2, a.

p aee e poopa pocxo paee ac (pc. 4.3.2). o eec peeax 0 90. Moe c, ecyx co copo poopa (. B) a acy ooceo caopa (. A):

= = (4.3.16) e hP hT - e, hT = a, = + -.

aca paaec epoaaoo ooe p MP > MT (pc. 4.3.2). Bo cyae oo oc epaeco < + -. (4.3.17) Ta a aa oe oaa, o ycoe pae ac aec e <. Bpaee ac pepac, oa eopa c P y acpey py pyy (pc. 4.3.2). B o ooe pocxo pacaae ac. Paeco = ooo oo o cyae, ec =, o eooo-a aoex opae.

Cpaeoc epaeca (4.3.17) a poepea cepeao. ac e apaeeea coepoa exaec oa c poopo caopo, a o oaao a pc. 4.3.2. Bce eoepece paep yee o cpae c pea paepa pepo 100 pa yoca poee aepo. poepac oooc pae ac c poyo ceee aaoo ooe yx ap aepao c ec oeo pe, oop opee epe poeee ca. co peya pee a. 4.3.1.

Taa 4.3.Cyxo oa Mop oa + + o Bpae + + o Bpae -e e -e e pe ac pe ac f f 1 0,21 1 0,0 1 0,24 0,36 He 2 0,15 0,20 He 5 2 0,18 2 0,0 2 0,12 2 0,5 Ta opao, peyae poeeoo aaa o, o ec oa oaa ac c poopo caopo e a ao apaex pax ac, o coac yco ceppoa ac. a ea oocc ac, ceee oopx ec pa ecyo, ocyo .. ax ac co pae pao 2n, n = 2, 3, 4, ac, oopx n > 2, oy oapoa c poopo caopo a eapaex pax (pc. 4.3.3, , ).

ac, po cee oopx o pa ypa c ee co pae 2n + 1, ceppoae - o apay 2.

Opae o oey pe c yeee ca pae yeaec. Ta, yoa eoxo ycoe ceppoa ec epaeco f > 0,325, ceyoa oo a cya oaa .. (ae oeo pe oya aaoo c oo ypae (4.3.15)).

paeex yp yp c n > 2, oapyx a oaao a pc.

4.3.3, , , eoxo ycoe ceppoa ae ec opaee o f. Ec o opaee e oec, pocxo aae ac paoe o. Ta opao, aoee epoo papyee ac APT c poyo poe cee poyooy.

P P P P P P T T T T a) ) ) Pc. 4.3.3. Bapa oaa ac c poopo caopo poee aa papye ac, ee opy apaeeea c poyo poe cee. o oea coee aao poopa caopa aca ye axoc aae poopa, pac cee aaa poopa a ce epoo c. Ta a ao paep ac, cxo aax yco, ee p aaa poopa, o aca ye opepoaa aoe pa o oc aaa poopa (pc. 4.3.4, a). p coee aaa poopa c aao caopa aca ye ocaac o e ooe, oa cea aaa poopa, oopo paa aca, e coecc c oeo ceo aaa caopa (pc. 4.3.4, ). eoc oo peeoo epaa paa =. oce oo oea aca aae ac epe ece c ooo oc. ye ca, o epooc ac aa copoc ee epee aa caopa paa copoc ooa oc. aca ye ac, oa e pec pooooo cee aaa caopa (pc. 4.3.4, ).

eoc oo peeoo epaa aaaec oe pee = + -. Bea epeee ac o aaa caopa opeeec o opye =, (4.3.18) e - y copoc ooa oc epe pepae APT.

a V d R a a) ) ) Pc. 4.3.4. Cxea epeee ac aaax poopa caopa p acye oea pee aca acpyec, ee papyee ye pocxo o exay, ocaoy apae 3. ac ac, ocaac aae caopa, ye eea aapaa.

ac ac, ocaac aae poopa, ye oepac aeey poe o paccopeoy exay p ceye coee aaa poopa c aao caopa, ec ao paep ac ye oe e aopa oe.

Coca aop eo pacea payoepecoo cocaa ocepco cec epx ac, ex opy apaeeea p ceppoa APT a PA.

1. o cxoo po payoepecoo cocaa cp coaec aa, aa ea oopo opeee oeco ac ni, y oopx xapaep paep xo aao, e - oep e a.

2. ac ao e poepc o cxee, copypoao cey opao: ec <, o aca pocaae aa caopa, ec > +, o aca oc aa caopa, ec < +, pocxo pacaae ac a e ac, xapaepe paep oopx yy pa - + cooeceo.

3. ac c xapaep paepo - + pooc oepa, ocae .

2.

4. Coppoa oyex ac o xapaepoy paepy. ocpoee oo a.

5. ocpoee o ao ae po payoepecoo cocaa.

o-cxea ocaoo aopa peea a pc. 4.3.5. Ha pc. 4.3.6 oaa pacee xapaepe copa pacpeee ac o paepa o ceppoa oce ceppoa APT.

L l, - - Pc. 4.3.5. o-cxea aopa pacea paepo ac p opaoe APT % % a) a /c % % 7,) 2, /c % % ) /c Pc. 4.3.6. Pacee acoc payoepecoo cocaa. =1,0 a 4.4. CTPAPOBAHE B CCTEME "TBEPOE TEO - OCT" BCAOHHOM AAPATE POTOPHOO TA 4.4.1. AHA HET POECCA CTPAPOBAH B CCTEME "TBEPOE TEO - OCT" o cpapoae ccee epoe eo - oc oac poecc pacope, eaa, a ae eocpeceo poecc cpapoa (eee ooo ecox eex ooeo epo a a ocoe x paeo pacopoc o pacopee) [37].

poecc cpapoa ae ceye ca:

1) oo cpaea (pacope) oepxoc paea epo o a;

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