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- = 1 = 1 = 1 - opeoc pacea p x aex poco pea ae aaox cocax yeo ep ooy pa cac c oc accc (pc. 4.1.4).

c px ee S-opay opy.

epea ae cao e a y acoc, ocooe e ec oaae ea aopa ey poopo caopo. B o e pe eoxoo oe, o yeee yeee e aopa cooecy opao ee ey paecoo copoe pepae aapaa , cooeceo, ee epea ae. Ho epea ae oo oepa oco, e pye pee ocpye apaep APT.

p pe eo copoc e oepxoc poopa ae /c, pocxo "acee" aaoo epe oea oc aae caopa.

o pocxo c c e, o oe aaooo acepa p ox pace cao, o ae cooecye yeee ppae eca aa yeo aaoo (ycaoo yyo) ep.

Xapaep ee cca ep aope ey poopo caopo acoc o apaepa, oycoe oep a pee p ooceo e coe oc cooec c oe, paccopeo apapae 2.1.

.1 10-4 B/ 3,3,2,2,2,1,1,0,0,Rp, /c 6 1 1 1 Pc. 4.1.4. pa acoc yeo ep aope ey poopo - - - caopo PA, 1 - = 1 , 2 - = 1 , 3 - =1 , P = 0,5105 a 4.2. MPOBAHE BCAOHHOM AAPATE POTOPHOO TA 4.2.1. MPOBAHE HECMEBAXC OCTE p ypoa e eceaec oc o opeee opao pacpeee oa pyo e aee, ycox o ooe oaece [16].

Ha ooy a ecy a poooox aopa [17]:

1) paoc aecx aopo, eoppyx a;

2) oepxocoe aee, oopoe poec ooe apoo ae Pa, pecyeo eopa:

=, (4.2.1) e - oepxocoe aee, H/; - aep a, .

Paoc aecx aopo oycoaec [18, 19]:

- paeo copoc coo a opecocx a, = ; (4.2.2) - oeae cao a, =. (4.2.3) ec - ooc coo cepco a, /3; - paoc copoc ey ae coo ao, /c.

Ec, o a coxpae cepecy opy, ec <, o a eoppyec popeae opy coa pae [17].

o Teopy [16], exa pacaa a coco a a pa e eo op. oa a papaec, oa opaye p ae paepo ooo 0,01 aepa cxoo a. o a aopo [17] coooee aepa cxoo pooo a ae cocae o 10 : 1 o 2 : 1.

Paoc aecx aopo, eoppyx a, cooae ae eecy ep = 6, (4.2.4) oopo ocaoo yee oa oepxoc a a ey = = 1. (4.2.5) coa yco, eoxox ypoa, .e. paoc aecx aopo, eoxoo pec oc cocoe poaeco ecaoc.

p e yx oce c pa copoc ooceo oepxoc paea, oae ecaoc, aaea ecaoc ea-eoa.

Ceee oce aec ooopa oye oepxoc paea, oopoe oycoeo eeco epe e [20]. Hecaoc Pe-Teopa oae a oepxoc ey y oc, ec oepxoc cae ycopee o oee eo oc oee eo. O xopoo ecx o poaeco ecaoc ec epexo o aapoo ee ypyeoy, ao ecaoc aaec ecaoc Toa-xa [20]. Paoc aecx aopo oa cece eoacax yca ypyeo ooe. e aoc ey opeee xapaepca x yca ecoc ypoa ocyecec a ocoe oo eop oao-opoo ypyeoc ooopoa-Oyxoa. oo, o pooo poee a p ao-o e ecaoc, eoxoo, o pe ec ecaoc peao pecoe pe [21]:

=. (4.2.6) Paoe ypyeoe eee oc xapaepyec aoee a ocpee apae oo cyax yca copoc c epee apaee ayo. p oopoo opoo ypyeo cpee aee yca copoc a ocaoo oe poey pee pao y [18]. B c c ycaooe ee acaa < << xapaepyec cpeeapa aee ycaoo copoc =. (4.2.7) ec - paccoe, a oopo oeoe aee copoc eec a ey ;

- pec aca aca yca.

B acaax > ycaoa copoc opeeec ec aoo "yx pee" ooopoa-Oyxoa:

, (4.2.8) e - oaoe aee ep ooa, B/.

ycaoa copoc oe paccapac a paoc oex ae copoc oax, ocox oa o pyo a pacco. yca acaa d yy coaa poooox oax oepxoc a paoc aecx aopo =. (4.2.9) Paep aox ae, ycox ypyeo ooe yoeope yco =. (4.2.10) oca (4.2.8) (4.2.10) ya, o, oyae ypaee pacea aepa aox ycox ae ypyeo ooe d = k(/)0,6 ()-0,4, (4.2.11) e k - ocaa.

p ayceco ypoa poecc coco yx ca [20, 22]. Ha epo ca pocxo opaoae pyx ae (opa 30 - 70 ) o pe papa oepxoc paea a oepxoc oa. Ha opo ca pocxo paae pyx ae a ee o ece yapx o, oax oe cxoa aaox ypo.

ypoae ayceco aae, o e aopa pao [23, 24], ocyecec a ce poe a oe axoa aaooo ypa.

B pae o oe peaaec, o p axoa aaooo ypa a pae paea a, oa coocopoce yye cpy oo oc pyo, oope ae pacaac, opay cepce ac [25,26].

Haoee epo aep opayxc ae yc opeec coaco eop pacaa cpy:

= +, (4.2.12) e - aep copoc yyo cpy.

paee e aaooo ypoa ee [20]:

= -, (4.2.13) e - pe, c; - oe, 3; C - oepa yc; S - oa eao oepxoc, 2; - oca.

Peee oo ypae acaec e = = =, e - peea oepa.

poe opy (4.2.12), ye aa a aep opayxc ae p ypoa pacex opcyax peoe paoe [27]. Maeaeca oe, yaa a poaeco aa, pecaea pepao e. APT aa oe epoa ooy, o oa ocoaa a poaeco aa, a APT aa yca ayceca.

4.2.2. MHOOATOPHOE MPOBAHE B CAOHHOM AAPATE POTOPHOO TA p ypoa eceaxc oce APT, opaoa ye pocxo o e ocox epex aopo oec, oope oca apapae 4.1. B ocyce aa ocooe oece a ac yc ye ocyecc a ce apoypyex yca copoc ooe oc p ee yco oe aa caopa. p ooceo oo ee aopa ey poopo caopo ac eepoeo oc ye oepac opaoe aope a ce ox cox ape p pae poopa. Ocooe oece a yc yy oaa aaoe yp: yape o p ycax poc coocopocx yyx cpy p cxoa. Bce aop oec a oe pae copoc oc oax oacx.

Maca x yca coep c acao ypyex yca copoc oc ooe. Ha ocoa o oe pace aepa ac yc p ee opaoe APT ye poo cooec c ypaee eop oaoopoo ypyeoc (4.2.11):

= 6 -, (4.2.14) e: = + + - cyapa ea cca ep eeapo oee oc, oee aa caopa a pe coee aaa poopa c aao caopa.

Cocae cyapo e cca ooc eeapo oee oc paccac cooec c opya (4.1.7), (4.1.17) (4.1.22).

poee pace cpeeapeecoo aepa ac yc o opye (4.2.14), pa yc ooc coo a =1 /3, oepxocoe aee = H/. Be eoepecx pex apaepo APT pe a e, a apapae 4.1. Pacee pe acoc aepa ac yc o eo copoc coee aao poopa caopa oaa a pc. 4.2.1 - 4.2.3.

ea copoc coee ec oco apaepo, opee ey cca ep aae caopa aapaa. Ha pc. 4.2.4 ocpoe pa acoc aepa ac yc o epeaa ae a pepaee ae paoe aepe.

d 6,5,4,3,2,1,Rp, /c 1 1 1 0 2,5 5 7,5 10 12,5 15 17,5 20 22,5 25 27,5 PC. 4.2.1. PA ABCMOCT AMETPA ACT MC OT COPOCT - COBMEEH AHAA POTOPA C AHAOM CTATOPA =1 = 1 - = 61 ; 2 - = 1 ; 3 - =d b 106, R, /c Rpp, /c 2,5 5 7,5 10 12,5 15 17,5 20 22,5 25 27,5 PC. 4.2.2. PA ABCMOCT AMETPA ACT MC OT COPOCT COBMEEH AHAA POTOPA C AHAOM CTATOPA - = 1 = 1 - = 61 ; 2 - = 1 ; 3 - =d b 106, 7,2,7,2,7, Rp, /c 1 1 1 0 2,5 5 7,5 10 12,5 15 17,5 20 22,5 25 27,5 PC. 4.2.3. PA ABCMOCT AMETPA ACT MC OT COPOCT COBMEEH AHAA POTOPA C AHAOM CTATOPA - = 1 = 1 - = 61 ; 2 - = 1 ; 3 - =d P P 6 1 PC. 4.2.4. PA ABCMOCT AMETPA ACT MC OT ABEH B - PAOE AMEPE OT EPEAA ABEH. = P: 1 - RP = 5 M/C; 2 - RP= 10 M/C; 3 - RP = 15 M/C;

P: 4 - RP = 5 M/C; 5 - RP = 10 M/C; 6 - RP = 15 M/C Aa pao oaae, o ce p apaepa paec paoao a ey aepa ac yc. e oe aee aoo ypax apaepo, e ee aee aepa ac, e oe xapaep acoce paec eoy. Tao xapaep acoce oaae, o p epexoe a o aece ypoe oec - aaooe oece, eee aepa ac xo a "pee ace". e oe ea cca ep oee yc, e oe xapaep acoce paec eo, aeee yeee ep a peaa poecca e ae aeoo ea.

4.3. CEPPOBAHE TBEPX ACT B CAOHHOM AAPATE POTOPHOO TA 4.3.1. AHA COB CEPPOBAH TBEPX TE Oco opoco eop ee ec ycaoee c ey apaa ep paepa oex aax yco aepaa. o eop. Pepa paoa A p ee poopoaa oa o opaoao oepxoc S = (4.3.1) e - oe poopoaoc.

Coaco oee B. . pea . a ep, eoxoa oaooo ee op oox oopox e, poopoaa x oea:

= (4.3.2) e - oe poopoaoc; - cpe paep ac, .

. A. Peep . o peo opee epeec pacxo p poe ac c yeo pao a eopa ac, a opaoa ox oepxoce.

Tep aepa o ece poex c papyaec eaec o ac peyeoo paepa cey cocoa [28 - 30]:

1) paauaue - papyee ea p peoaa ypeeo ape a peeo pooc a cae;

2) pacaaue - papyee ea ecax oepa aox apyo;

3) paaaue - papyee ea o ece ax c;

4) peaue - paeee ea a ac o ece poex c;

5) ucmupaue - eee ea o ece cax, pacax cpeax c;

6) yap - papyee ea o ece aeco apy.

Copeea eop papye epoo ea ee e ocoe ca poecca papye [31 - 34]:

- oea eopa ac c opaoae pope;

- papyee p oce ace coco peex eopa.

p ecox aex poeo apy eopa (ceee, oeceoe ee ) apee (ca, oecea ee oa) oce epx e ca e coooee e ac o pee ec apy. Ec p c apy occaaaec cxoa opa ea, o eopa aaec ypyo. p ypyo eopa oe aac oceeoe ooee poee o apyo x cae p c apy. Ec ce ex c e po oeoy yee eopa, o aaec eypya eopa.

p coxpae eopa oce c apy eopa aaec aceco, a ea ape, cooecya aceco eopa, aaec peeo ypyoc. Papyee epoo ea c ooee acecx eopa aaec acec, a e aeo aceco eopa - xpy [31, 32].

Haoee a o eopa ec c (coee), p oopo pocxo epeeee yx ace epoo ea o opeeeo pcaopaeco ococ o ece eoppyx ape. C apoaec opeeeo ece eoo eea pcaeco pee e paeo oo coa.

B ococ coe opayec coee coa, oax p x opoe pece. p o a pece ecye acaeoe apee, peaee poeoe poopoaoe cy coa coe.

oepa ape oe pec c eyx coa opaoa apoeo pope. Tpea ye pacpocpac epe oac coo oepa ape oe ooc coe ocaoc, ec ee a ee pecoo paepa, eoxooo caopoooo pacpocpae.

p oec epeex apyo ye a aao ca poecca papye oppyc pope. eec ace o opaoae pope poee ocoo pacy, cac oppy apope. Pacpocpaee apope ocae acy po ee aoy papye.

p yapx apyax oae ape oca aex e a paopeeoc apy, ea ape o oe opeeec aoee aae opaeo yapx o. Haoee x o oe a coe ape, poe papye.

Papyee ac aeo ycopec p a paex poeeo xpyo aepae papyee pocxo -a pacpocpae x pe o cey aepay.

p pyo ee paep eeo pope oo a o cpae c paepa eex ac x papyee pocxo o oepxoc aox ape c pacpe eeo ooo aceo opa. B oac ooo cepxooo ee, oa paep eeo coep c paepa ac, p o e oeo ooc pope x oeco ao. ooy opaoae ox oepxoce e c ee eeo cpyyp oee oo opa, peyx oee cox papyax ape [31].

o oece ex c eaex acax oae oeoapeoe cocoe, poee c poco eo ecoc papye ac. Bce ee epx acax paac c poco ecoc apeoo coco co peee eo cyecoa acax. Taoe pae eeo ee eco oac ypyx oac acecx eopa. oceeo epexo pap oacx, paaec ee opee peo oey peay pooc epx ac o cpae c x eopeeco pooc. Ocooe aee popea p o oepxoce ee, oope yce acopooy ec AB.

Tooe eee cyx cocoo e oao AB oce aee poecca, cece ypoe ex ac, ocae eoopoo peea ee. oce oo aae peoaa opa poecc - opaoae ox apeao.

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