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Coco oe ecoc xo-exooecx poecco oee eoc aapao a ce cpea ep o pee pocpace aa po cpeo-ycoo oa ep (B) [3 - 6]. Tao oxo peoaae, o cca oo ep oa pocxo peyeceo opecoc cepco ac a opo poeyo pee, a aop, cococye oep ep e x o, o o oooc ycpae.

Papao pa B aece ocooo peapyeo aopa paccapa exa pacopa ep o oeco apoaox ypo [7, 8]. apoaoe yp oa a ce pax exao:

aa, poo ca oc, apopoa ocpoo apa epe xooy oc. apoaoe yp cya pacopaopa ayypoao ccee oeao ep eecy ep paaoo e oc oe aoo ypa. a opo poeyo pee pocxo eee ooo yca ep, oop peayec ope yapo cepeco o, eeppyeo ypo, e yyo cpy, oae p cxoa ypa, cox paeo copoc poooo oc ooo ycpyx ypo.

Aop paccapaeoo pa ca, o B peayec APT e aaox eo a ce ox cox ape aope ey poopo caopo [5, 6]. yca ae copoc ooa paccapac a ec, pa eo eca poecco paax eop oao-opoo ypyeoc.

Tao oxo e oe cac ooc oocoa, a a cao pe B aoe exa eoopao oopeoc paoo-opooo e, .e.

epoec ycaooo [3, 9]. Heoxoo pacp oac peaa pa B, a a ooo ecoe apaeoe ycaooe oece oax oeax oc aa oee pyx acaax, ee ypoe exa.

yc oo ep opaeo oee ae ecpye oe xo-exooece poecc ocyce aa. aaoe e xapaepy oee co aece ypoe ycaoo opaa poecca e oc. eca exooecx poecco oycoea e oo peoaa ecpy aopo, a ce cooyoc aopo oec a y eepoey cpey.

APT pecae coo pocy exaecy ocpy, o p eo paoe aac coe ooooee poaece aycece e.

a eepoea cpea oepaec ooaopoy oec, aaeyc ycax ae copoc ooa, poycax aaox ypo c yee cepecx yapx o, eco yyo oec a ce cxoa aaox ypo, ox cox apex aope ey poopo caopo. Paccop a x exao eca exooecx poecco APT o oeoc.

B ocyce aa ocooe oece a y eepoey cpey pocxo a ce ypyex yca copoc ooe oc p ee yco oe aa caopa. Bey eeapoo oea oc, eeoo aa caopa a pe coee aaa poopa c aao caopa, oo pacca, a = (4.1.1) e = ; 1 = +.

ep yca ae, eeppyeoo aa caopa, opeeec o opye =, (4.1.2) e c - copoc ya oc, /c; - ooc oc, /3; - oeoe aee ae, eeppyeoo pepaee aapaa c oa cee aaa caopa.

Cyeo oo, o ec ocoo eo, ypaee (4.1.2) oo aca a =. (4.1.3) Moeoe aee ycoo ae opeeec pae, (4.1.4) = e - cpeepacxoa copoc oc epe aa caopa,.

oca pay ac opy (4.1.4) paee (4.1.3), oy = (4.1.5).

Mooc yca ae, eeppyeoo aa caopa, ae e = = (4.1.6).

ey ep yca ae paccae o opye = = (4.1.7).

p ooe aa aae caopa, eca exooecx poecco ocyecec ae a ce yca cxoa aaox ypo. p ycax aaox ypo opayc yape cepece o.

ep, cooea opyae oc aao ypo, opeeec e = -. (4.1.8) Cyapa ep, cooea eeapoy oey oc ce aao ypa, ec =, (4.1.9) e - oeco aaox ypo.

co aaox ypo opeee a ooee oea aaooo acepa oey aaooo ypa:

=. (4.1.10) Bpe axoa aaooo ypa opee o opye Pe e yea oc caeoc apa aa ype:

= 1, (4.1.11) e - aee aae caopa, paeoe pa ae paoe aepe, a.

Cyapa ep, cooea oc ce aao ypa c yeo oeca yca, opeeec e =.

epexo ooc, ae:

=. (4.1.12) cca ooc eeapo oee opee a 1 = = =. (4.1.13) a, o ooee oea aaooo acepa oey, eeoy aa caopa, ec ec aa, ae:

=. (4.1.14) , c yeo paee oyex coooe 1- =. (4.1.15) Cepeca yapa oa, eeppyea ypo, cpo ayxae p pacpocpae oc. aee yapo oe acoc o pacco, oec acoc a =, (4.1.16) e - yapoe aee a oepxoc ypa, a; r - paccoe, a oopoe pacpocpaec oa, ; R - ey payc ypa.

Boe a ey payc ypa ey R0, oa yapoe aee acao, ye ca, o aee yapo o cyeceo yec a pacco =. Toa oe ayxa yapo o ye e ey. C yeo oo, o ep poopoaa apay ae, oe ocae ep ye e ey. C yeo oo peooe opya (4.1.15) pe 1- =. (4.1.17) a pe coeo eoo a aao ype oe coep ecoo yca. oce yca aaaec cxoae aaooo ypa.

o pocxo ooy, o aae ooo a eeppoa yca ae aa caopa, aee aae opacae ae cxoae ypa. p cxoa aaooo ypa opayec coocopoca yya cpya, oopa ecye a opyae ac oc a epoe eo. eecy ep eo yyo cpy oo aca e =, (4.1.18) 1 1 e = 1 - acca yyo cpy, ; - copoc yyo cpy, /c.

1 Oe yyo cpy opee a 1 = 1, (4.1.19) e, 1 - aep a yyo cpy, .

aep y yyo cpy ae, coaco peoea [10, 11]:

= ; 1 = Ta opao, paee opeee ooc eo yyo cpy acaec e:

1 1 = =. (4.1.20) co yyx cpye aaoo oac pae pa cy aaox ypo. Mooc cex yyx cpye aaoo acepe opee a:

- 1 = = (4.1.21) cca ooc yyx cpye o eeo oee opee o opye:

- = =. (4.1.22) Copoc yyo cpy ae a =, (4.1.23) e = - copoc axoa aaoo ooc, /c; - epeec oe,, [10].

Hao pyoc ec opeeee acaoo aaoo payca aaooo ypa oe aoeo pacpe axoa. Coaco [12], p ycx pacax apex oc apo aa aa pac, opay aao acep, opa a oopoo opeeec aa cepo paepo aaox apoe, xapaepo paaeoo ape pa yco. Bce apo oca acaoo paepa oopeeo, cpea oe cac oocepco, coepae yp oo ooo paepa.

Maca a payc aaooo ypa opeec o ypae (3.1.12 ). Aa pee ypae oaae, o ooee axoc peeax 3 - 6, o oepaec cepea a [13 - 15], coaco oop oe payc aaooo ypa ceo 3 - 5 pa ee cxooo. Cyeo oo pyx oye, ya, o =, ae:

= (4.1.24) p ao ee aopa, pa pacxo oc epe aop ee, oo peepe. p oo ee aopa ey poopo caopo epea ae eoo, pa pacxo oc cyecee, a ecoc aa aa. B o cyae opeeea ac oc oepaec opaoe aope ey poopo caopo a ce ox cox ape. Mooc, oopa pacxoyec a peooee x c pe p pae poopa, opeeec cooec c opyo (2.1.38) - = + + + +, + + e = - ; = - l 1- ;

+ = ; = - ; = + ;

= - ;

+ = + ;

= - ; =.

cca ooc aope opeeec o opye =, (4.1.25) e = - oe aopa ey poopo caopo, 3; = + - cpe payc aopa, ; - coa oepxoce, opayx aop, .

Cyape yee epoapa p opaoe oc ax oax APT opeec o opye = + + +, (4.1.26) e - oe, ya coooee paoo pacxoa oc epe aop pacxoa oc epe aa poopa caopa eocpeceo.

oe oo pacca cey opao. Pacxo oc, poxoe oo epe aa poopa caopa, opeee a =, (4.1.27) e - acoa coee aao poopa c aao caopa, c-1.

Toa pacxo oc, poeae epe aop ey poopo caopo, ae a = -, (4.1.28) e - o pacxo epe aapa, 3/c.

oe opee e - = = = -1 = -1. (4.1.29) B paccapaeo oe paec, o ocoe exa cca ep oee oc pacoppy ee a eca exooecoo poecca. B eceoc, ac ep epexo eo pye oep ep. Bc c opye (4.1.26) eoxoo epe a caae ec oe, yae ee apa aoo a yeo ep a eca exooecoo poecca:

= + + +. (4.1.30) Bea aoo oea ac a o a xo-exooecoo poecca, a o cee eoc pacopa ep oey paoy.

Aaecoe opeeee e oeo poeao, aoee pa eoo opeee x oeo yy cepeae cceoa.

cxo x ecoo cca, oo a, o pa ee x oeo ea peeax o 0 o 1. Coooe oeo ey coo o e .

Coooe oeo ycaoe ceyx coopae. ep ecpy aopo exooecx poecco APT ec cpeoyc o ooa oc aa caopa. yca (paoo-opoa) opaa ee ooa oc ec aoo opo pa oceye aaox eo. O ay, op oea, copoc ae ooe oc ac cee paoc aa ypyeoc.

aaox opaoa oe e o yy cao pa e coy ec cyece a ycee ecpyx aopo - yeee ooceo copoc e a, pae eao oepxoc.

p ao aope ey poopo caopo e ox cox ape acaex paeo copoc oaae e eee e a eca xo-exooecx poecco, e yca ae copoc ooa aaoe e aae caopa, a oe ae oe cee. Be oea ocaeae c c e, o oo oc epe aop a e ee aop, e caee e ypyeoc ooa. C pyo copo yeee aopa po peoy opaca ay yca pepaee aapaa , cooeceo, aeceoy epexoy aopax oec - pao aa.

B o e pe, ecop a cyecey epeecy cocay aaox eo, x e cpoo oaoao a ypy co oc. p yae o oepxoc ypa ycaoe e peo ocaea, yapa oa cpo ayxae. yye cpy p cxoa ypa oa e cea, a ec oa, o x apaeoc coeppoaoc opepoa xaoo, oe oeoo ec eco.

oo, o aao aop cyeceo oecoa a eca xo-exooecx poecco, eoxoa opa aaoa oac, epe oopy ye poxo ec oo opaaaeo oc.

Ha cyapoe aee cca ep aae caopa aope ey poopo caopo yy e oo oe, o xapaep acoce aoo a yeo ep o eoepecx pex apaepo APT. pa acoce yex ep o aoo aopa oec p ee ocooo ypaeo apaepa ecoc oec - ooceo copoc e paox oepxoce poopa caopa , cooeceo, aao poopa ooceo aao caopa oaa a pc. 4.1.1. - 4.1.4.. ea copoc ooceoo e poopa caopa ec e apaepo, eee oopoo cyece opao caaec a ao aope oec cca ep. poe eo copoc ooceoo e oepxoce p pacee ec apaep, oope ae cyeceo a ey yeo ep paoe oee.

a apaepa oocc: - caec epea ae; - aee aepe; - aca payc aaox ypo; - aop ey poopo caopo. ea ep ycoo oec ooa oc eec o apaoeco acoc p ee, o acoc e eec o yee caecoo epeaa ae p yee apaepa pocxo yeee cee n > 1 ypae =, o e cyece opao. o pocxo ooy, o cyeceoe e a ayy yca ae oaae epoeoe aee, oopoe opacae apao p yee yoo copoc payca poopa.

. Rp, /c R 6 1 Pc. 4.1.1. pa acoc yeo ep yca oea oc, eeoo aa caopa a pe coee eo c aao poopa o copoc coee: 1 Pc = 20 a; 2 Pc = 40 a; 3 Pc = 60 a ooc aaoo ep aae caopa xapaepye ec aa .

ooy yea ycaoa ep yea yya ep ec cooec c xapaepo acoc eca aa o eo copoc coee aao poopa c aao caopa. pa acoce o oaa peoe ppaee yeo ep aae caopa, oa apaep pae eoopoe pecoe aee, oce oopoo pocxo aecee ee ooe oc, .e. pocxo peoe yeee ca aaox ypo. pa a pc. 4.1.2. 4.1.3 oaa, o aaoa ep poec oo p 1 /c oee. B peaoc, aaoe opaoa ep, oopy o cooa opyae oc cyecy p <1 /c.

B/. 11,9,4,2,Rp, /c 6 1 PC. 4.1.2. PA ABCMOCT EHO HEP, PACXOEMO ABTAOHHM ACTEPOM B EMEHTAPHOM OEME OCT B AHAE CTATOPA OT COPOCT COBMEEH AHAOB POTOPA C AHAAM CTATOPA:

1 - = 1 ; 2 - = 1 ; 3 - =11.

- = 1 = 1 = 1 - 10-4 B/ 3, 2,2,1,1,0,Rp,, /c /c Rp 6 1 Pc. 4.1.3. pa acoc yeo ep, cooaeo yy cpya aaooo acepa eeapoy oey oc aae caopa o copoc coee aao poopa c aaa caopa: 1 - = 1 ; 2 - = 1 ;

3 - = 11.

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