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yca ayceca aa aec a ce ep oea oc, paeoc o aee aaa poopa aa caopa oe coee aaa poopa c aao caopa. p apo aae caopa oc, poaac epe o aaa caopa a ce epox c, coae oaoe papeee a xoo yace aaa caopa. paopee yc pacaeo ("opaeoo" ooceo paoecoo) ae ae poc apoaox apoe pye aa. Heaco o aaoo paepa, aaoe yp oca coeo acaoo paepa paec oopeeo. p poce aao ype aoec ace apo ao oc pacope oc ao. a oo aee oc aae opaca, aao ype o ece oeoo ae c oepxocoo ae axoaec, ap oecpyec a pae paea a, a a oepaec coy aaaecoy ca. oce cxoa ypa opyae oc pacpocpaec cepeca yapa oa, cpo ayxaa pocpace.

o aae oc oa opaoae aoex apo ao ooce ypo p oao oe ae oc o ae acex apo. Coooee coepa aa apa ooc oe pa (eopeec o y o e). B acoc o oepa apa aa ooc x aa apo ao.

Heoxoo oe, o oee ae oc o ae acex apo ooo ae p e ayypoa oc. Ho poecc pacpocpac o cey oey oc oe o aa, oopa ee opaey oac. Paa poaecy aa, oay a ce ecoo oe ae ooe oc p oea epoo ea, aycecy aa, oay p poxoe epe oc aycecx oea. Hac ye epecoa ayceca aa a aoee a o coe eco cyoc yco ayceco aa, oae APT. Cc yy eac a ocoe oop oopa, ocee o poee, o ea eyoo apooe epaypx coo. poaeca aa opoo ocaa [3 - 12]. aaoa aepa, aoea apo ao pax coax, aaec ooc, ype, ypo, cepo .. ye yope ep acoc o paccapaeo cya, a a o oe pe aea eco cyoc aa. Ayceca aa pecae coo eoe cpeco oepa ep yoo o o ooc coy ooc ep, cay c yca axoae aaox ypo [13 - 21].

o oc opaoaac ooc, eoxoo pay ee cocee oey a paccoe e eee yoeo poeya ey . oc oe epa acaoe pacaee apee, paccaeoe o opye P = 2/R, (3.1.1) e R - payc ypa, ; P - aee, eoxooe papa cooc oc, a; - oepxocoe aee, H/.

o p R = 2 10-8 c, P = 10 000 a [18]. aaoa pooc eopaoao o e peae ecox co aocep. Cyecye eea acoc e peex px e [13] ey acoo ayceco o opoo aee, p oopo oae aa. opoo aee aaec aee ay aycecoo ae, aeo pacpee apoa o pecoo paepa, oce oopoo o aae pac poopao [13]. e e acoa ayceco o, e e opoooe aee. Hapep, aco 1 opoooe aee e peae 1 a p opao caeco ae eepaype (P 1 a, T 20 C) [13, 18].

Pacxoee ey cepeao eopeeco pooc ocec ae peax ocx pax pece e, oope c apoa aa co oa ee pooc. Coaco eopeec pecae aee yp o pacopc oc, a oe ca. Te e eee, oc ocoo pcycy yp paoo payca.

Oe aee yp capyc a oepxocx peax ax epx ac, eex oc. B o oc apo aa oy opaoac ae a ce apex ac cox ep, pcycyx ocecx yax [18]. oee 2/3 ac, opoex ocec ya, coca -eo, a ocae, ocoo, - epo. epo xopoo ooac ocx, a -eo ooac cao, o oaa oo poae cocooc. poxo epe eeca, epo -eo aoecy c epoa aoo eeca a x, apaa a oa opeeey ep. Bcece oaoo ee ea, oopoe epexo epea epoa ep, oc opayc apoe yp.

B oc cece poyocoo e e eco yya ypee cpyyp - oac pocpaca c oeya o ep oeya coo ep. B oacx c oeya coo ep, oope aa pooac oeo eepayp, yoe o oy oece ae ape, ocaox papa oce [24].

Caoe cyecoae apoaox ypo ocec e, o a oepxoc ypa ec paoepo pacpeeee ooee ap, oycoee axoc oc oa. Oaae x apo peopaae cae ypa [13, 18].

Heeoe epeaoe ypaee, ocaee pocy oe cepeccepo yca aoo ooc payco r = R(t) oe oco yoo o, ee + + - = (3.1.2) peee oopoo opeeec aoo ee ae P(R) a oepxoc ooc P a ecoeoc. ec 0 - ooc eoyeo oc, /3.

Aaecoe peee oo ypae oyeo Pee p pocex ycox: P = P; P(R) = 0. Bo cyae ypaee (3.1.2) epexo ypaee axoa yco ooc o ece pocaecoo ae:

= -1 (3.1.3) e - aca paep ooc, .

Bpe axoa yco ooc opeeec opy Pe:

= 1 (3.1.4) paee, ocaee ee payca aaoo ooc oe ypayoo o, eco a ypaee Hoa- Heapeca:

+ = + + - - + - (3.1.5) paee (3.1.5) ocaoo xopoo ocae oeee aaooo ypa oe ypayoo o, o oye o ecaeoc oc e oo pao oe oey ca axoa aaooo ypa.

ay aaooo ypa c yeo caeoc ocae ypaee Xeppa-a:

+ + 1- 1- 1 + - - + + - + + + = (3.1.6) 1- e - oe aeco oc, ac; c0 - copoc ya eoyeo oc, /c.

paee (3.1.6) oee oo ocae ay aaooo ypa c yeo caeoc, o eaeao p copocx e, cpax co copoc ya, o xapaepo oeo ca axoa ypa.

B oce cceoa aa, ocoeo eopeecx, paccapa oeee oooo ypa. B peax ycox eoxo e oec ep, o oc cyecoa oooo ypa. ae p ae e aoo peae opo aa cpay oec oeco aaox ypo, aax opeeey ac pocpaca, oopy aa aaoo oac [22].

B pao aaoo oac oeco aaox ypo peae oeco apoe pepo 105 pa. o ocec e, o poecc ooe aaox ypo ec eo peae [13]. aa, oa a eo apoe, a pe ecoo eco epoo ypayox oea paaec cay oac, cocoy oeca aaox ypo.

poecc pa aaoo oac pecaec cey opao. p axoa aao ype oe ep ycooc pacaac a ac, a a a aee eepaypa o oe ype aca, o aee eepaypa apoaoo cec opaoaxc "ocoax" oe oe. B ae pace o eo pacpc caoc o apoa aa, eee po, e ocoo eec oc. aaoe ooc, oe a x apoax, opoa oe. Byp aaoo oac e epep poecc paoe oay aaox ypo, pe aao opo ecoo yeaec, a a ycaoec pee po aaox apoe aa o paoece yp, oe aocoepae y oopx oe, e y apoe [22].

B aece e, xapaepye cee paoc aa, . . Poeep peo cooa ec aa = (3.1.7) e - oe aaox ypo ae x aoeo pacpe, 3; - oe, ee aaoo oac, 3.

Bee oe oe yoeop cey y peoa: ee paep oo oea o : 1) a o cpae c o o, o epoe oyaee aa yooe aee oo o ca yp oo oea oco o ee ca; 2) aoo oe paepo aaooo ypa [22].

ec aa ec epa pocpaceo ooc ep, a ea poopoaa oeao ep, aaceo ce coepac oee ypa. Paoa, coepaea n ypa c oao aca paepa, acaec e = (3.1.8) B ycaoec pee, p eex ex ycox (caecoe aee, eepaypa, aocoepae ..) ec aa ec y oopa o.

Paccapa peeo cyae a y o, oo ec oe cpeeo (o oey aaoo oac) eca aa <> e = (3.1.9) Bea e peeax 0 1. H pee cooecye ocyc aa, epx pee oc oo oao oee. cpe ec aa oo e oo o oac, o o aoy-o cee.

B acoee pe e yoeopeo oe aaoo oac, aeao ocae ee oeee oeee paeaeo e oeoo aaooo ypa. oeee aaoo oac ac o ox e aopo:

paoee oay (oaece) ypo; x aoece; eee xapaepa yca ypa a ce yapx o yooo ye cocex ypo; eee cpex aycecx coc cpe; pooo yp aaoo oac a pae ypa; pacpeeee apoe aa;

aocoepae ..

Ta opao, aaoa oac pecae coo coeopa pacopaop ep, oopo cpaeo eeo aaaea ep ocooaec eee oe opooo pee, peyae eo oea ooc o oo pa peocxo cpe, oy yaee aaoy oac [22].

Ha pae ecoc aa ooe e oaa ee yco coca oc.

p aa eapoao oc aaoe yp ocyae ee oeca oyxa, e ocoec, o po yee epyeo ea apoaoo cec ype p eo ca opaca ae yapo oe. eaa oc po yee oac aa c oopee yeee ecoc yapo o, coaaeo aao ypa [13].

p oe eepayp aee yp ypa, opeeeoe aee apa aa, yeaec, yapa oa ocaec, o o ae po pocy aaoo oac.

eopeecx peoco ceye, o yeee pocaecoo ae po yee pee axoa ypa yee ecoc yapx o. cepe, poeee o cceoa aaoo po, cooece epe ay ae oe axoa aaooo ypa oaa, o yeee pocaecoo ae po aeoy yee x e, a ae eoopoy yee c pae oyo. Bce acoc oy ooceoe cepeaoe oepee pax cceoax [18 - 25].

Ayceca aa ocx pye pae o-xece e: cooece (ceee oce); xece e (yoxece pea); po epoo ea (papyee oepxoc);

ceppoae ypoae.

Cooece aaoe xece pea c ao ca poecca, oy oaa aoe e, o pe o oy ocyecc eaco o o pyoo [24, 25].

payoa ece ceee, oaee p poaeco aa, c o coe ppoe poecca. p cepeao cceoa aa oacox yox ox a ea aao o o-xec ea ey oacoo ypayoo aae [24, 25].

Moe o-xecx poecco, pocxox aaoo ype peae ey oee oc, peca ceye e [24]: aaoy ooc oy poa ap o, pacopee a, a ae eeca c coo ypyoc apa e oy poa o oey eeyx pacopex eec. Beec poecce cxoa ypa ep ocaoo oye, oa ccoa oey o, ao eec c coo ypyoc apa yp aaoo ooc. Ha o ca o pcycyx ao ec a ooeo, yacy epeae ep oye, epeape pyx poeccax. ece yooo o a eeca, poae ooc, ec eocpece, p, pe ece ax ao, ax a copo, oopo ao, aaoo ooc oceoe:

1) o-epx, copo oopo yacy peax pacoppoa paao:

+, + + a ao - aox yoxecx peax, oe peyao oopx ec ca aoa:

+, + 2) o-opx, xec ae a, poa aaoy ooc, yacy, a e a aopoe a, epeae ep epooo oye oeya o, a ae poecce epeap.

ec coo ))) ooaeo xecoe ece ya.

p cxoa aaooo ypa pacop epexo paa H, OH, o epo ao ep, opaoaec aoo ae p pacee oey H2O eec c coo ypyoc apa, poy x aoec ace peoa, a ae eacae oyee oey H2O.

Cyapy cxey aaooo pacee oey o peca ceye e oae ccee ae ac oce epexoa pacop coapyc peapy c pacope eeca. Ha o ca, oa ocyecc ocee ec aycecx oea, a xo poecca oy oaa e paec oo xec ae a - O2 H2.

B oeo cee, oece aa a oe pacop coc eceoy poeccy - pacee oey o aaox ypax. Heaco o ppo pacopex eec y ecye a oo eeco - a oy [24, 25].

po epoo ea (papyee oepxoc), oca oepxoce, yaee aycee poepooce, ceppoae epx ac ypoae ocyecc, ocoo, y xapaep poe aa: yap oa yy cpya, opayc p cxoa aaox ypo.

Ha oepxocx ac epx e ec oepaop ape e pope, epooce oepxoc .., a oopx opayc apo aa.

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