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epoeoe oceee ae pooc cox apaaax cy oc oce, coepax eaeoe oeco epo a. o poecc peec paee ox cyce oox pacopo.

o eco cyoc epoeoe oceee pecae coo poecc coooo ocae epx ac oe epoex c.

Ta opao, epypoae pecae coo o cyecy poecc ocaa poa oe epoex c.

Paaee p epypoa epoee c oaa a paeey y ccey opao oee oece, e c ec ae. ooy epypoae ec oee e cocoo exaecoo paee eoopox x cce, e ocaae poae.

Hapeoc coaaeoo epye o epoex c xapaepyec aopo paee, oop pecae coo ooee epoeoo ycope ycope c ec = e yoa copoc pae poopa, pa/c; R payc poopa epy, ; g ycopee c ec, paoe 9,81 /c2.

C o pe e epaepoo ca Fr poee epy oo pae a a acca: 1 epy opae, Fr < 3500; 2 epy copoce cepxepy, Fr > 3500.

e oe aop paee, e e paea cocooc epy.

aop paee Fr oe oe ye yee payca apaaa ee oe cee yeee ca oopoo, ocoy ea Fr poopoaa apay ca oopoo, a a = Oao, ye payc co oopoo oo oo o ecx peeo, opeeex exaeco pooc apaaa. poeee aopa paee Fr a oepxoc F ocae epo a apaae epy, ooaaeoe, aaec eco pooeoc epy, = Fr F.

Bea opaae e cex ocpyx aopo, opeex cocooc ocox pyx epy paee cyce yc.

epy accpy o cey paa:

o ee aopa paee;

o ee eca pooeoc;

o pey pao (epoec epep);

o cocoy py ocaa;

o ocpy paa.

Mexaeca pya ocaa ocooe ycoe epepo pao epy, ooy coco papy ec a pao x acca.

o ocpy paa epy paa, a opao, o pacooe cocoy apee aa.

Ocao, opaoac a ceax apaaa, coco epx ac oc, oopa aoe yco ey aca. a cpyypa ocaa o pe epypoa eec, epe ac a py a pya, epeeac, ee ac ao yco ec cooy oc, o eoa apa ocaec ocae. B cyae cooo apaaa ecea oc ocyae co oc, cyae paoo apaaa oa yaec e paa (oc + ee epe ac) epe oepc op. ooy ocoe epy pec p yoa eoepcx cyce, a pye epy pyo- cpeeepcx cyce. Ocao oyaec oee cyxo p oee pyx epx acax, eo oo po. eoepcx aepao aoc ocaa 5 40 %, a pyoepcx 0,5 5 %.

o ee ac epo a exece cyce a, oepaee epypoa, ycoo oo opae a ceye py:

pye oee 1 ;

cpee 1,0 0,1 ;

oe 0,1 0,01 ;

eca oe < 0,01 .

paec p ooe paaxc eae epy eooo oc oo ypaoeeoc cce, .e. ooo coae epa ep paaxc acc c eoepeco oc aa. oo oo, p cyaa epy pacpeeee aepaa poope cyao oe oe paoepo. B peyae p pae eypaoeee acc coa c, cpeec oy ooc cec a. Bo ox cyax yee epea oea epy a yae p ecx oopax aa c epyy oea cooo ycaaa a py.

2.1 EHTP HEPEPBHOO ECTB OPOHTAHE CCPE BPO OCAA TA epy a opoae pye a epepoo ec c ycpye pyo ocaa p oo op, coepaeo opaoocyaeoe ee.

epy oo a peaae paee xopoo pyxc oeppoax cyce, coepax o 50 % epo a.

Ha epyax oy opaaac cyce c pyo- cpeeeeo epo ao, oopo peoaa ac paepo oee 0,1 .

Coepae epo a pae cpaeo cooe, ooy eecoopao opaa eo pooce ooeo ocaa.

peyeco epy a c epepoc exooecoo poecca paee cyce, oooc po ocaa, coa cee ocy, oa pooeoc.

epy a pec xeco, ocoxeco, eaypeco, opopyo, eo, apaeeco pyx opacx poeoc.

epy pec opao aoocoo ap, xopcoo ap, cyaa ap, ocya, cya ap, oopaa pooc ap, apoaa ap, xpoaa ap, oopaa co, cyaa ao, apaoaa ao, xopcoo ao, aaaa a, aeo cep, xopcoo a, eeoo yopoca, eoo yopoca, cepocoo a, xopcoo ap, cyaoo co, aeoo co, cyooy, yp, paeaa eo, poea, xoooo ooa, xecoo ooa, oxopa, peoo po, apeoo eca, eaeco cpy, caxapa, caxapa-cpa pox aepao.

B acoee pe ooc epy oeo a ae c aepo poopa 400, 600 (630), 800, 1200 , a ae epy ceaoo aae c aepo poopa 660, 900 1200 .

Oco ya epy c poop, a, caa, oyx, ac p c epoaee, opea ya po. Bce y epy paee a cae.

ocpyo ocoeoc epy a ec ocooe pacooee poopa c ycpy oaee.

epy peca coo pye a epepoo ec c yx-, epex- ecaca poopo. Cxe x epy oaa a pc. 16 18.

Pc. 16 Cxea epy 1/2 Pc. 17 Cxea epy 1/4 Pc. 18 Cxea epy 1/6 B yxcopox epyax 2 poop pacooe ey oopa (pc. 19).

B epyax pec poop apacoo a, a oopx ypee eee oocoe ca. Byp poopa ypee pe a oyc. Byp poopa oee aa poa py, apeee a oyxe. Ha peo oyce ycaoeo ypaeoe oo, cyaee oppoa co ocaa, a ao ceoe oo, cyaee epeee ocaa o poopa.

Pc. 19 Cxea epy 2/2 Poop apee a oo ay, ycaoeo oax ca. Byp ooo aa a poox yax epeeaec o oae. Ha epee ac aa oa ycaaaec poop, a ae acopacpeee.

Ha ae ca apee oyx, e oepc xoa ocaa, paa ococa apo.

Bopao-ocyaeoe ee oae ocyecec o acoo pa, oop poc ee ye ooa aca acocce.

Macoccea coco acoca c epoaee, pocce, peaaeoo ee oa oeca aca aco p, opeo y, xooa peoxpaeoo aaa.

Paoe oc cy aco ycpaoe 20 (epeeoe 3).

Caa oopyoa o acocce.

po epy coco epoae epoeo paeco y. Bpaee o poa epye ocyecec c oo ox pee.

epy e poo, ooy ycaaa epyy a eyao epep.

Cyce ocyae o ae pye ( oaey ycpocy) pocpaco ey a a oyca, paac coeco c poopo epy, a oya epoeo co pacaec pocpaco ey ypae oo ope. a aa poxo epe co acaa cop opoao oc, a epa aa ocaaec a cax, opay co ocaa. Bea co ocaa peypyec ypae oo.

p opao-ocyaeo e oae coeco c oeao ( eco oeaa ooacao poope) poy aaaec a cooecye oa, epeeaec o oea ccaec yep cyxoo ocaa.

B epyax peycopea poa ocaa Bopao-ocyaeoe ee oae ocyecec epeeee caoo c oaee op acoo pa. Peypoa ca yca pooc ye ee oaaca acoccey.

2.1.1 acca cxe opeeee apaepo ooo ycaoo epy B ocee o c e yee pooeoc epy ca pec ycao, yyae apaep oaaeo epyy cyce oeceae oee coy cee paee. o epayp a [6] a poeo cyaa oo coca ec pexc ycaoax cxe, pecaex a pc. 20.

o cxea 1 2 ycao epypoa paoa co cey oaae:

pooce xopcoo a ycaoa c oocyeao epyo p payc Mae c aepo poopa 1400 : c1 = 0,8 1; c4 = 0,05; c5 = 20 14; T4= 12 14,/;

ycaoa c o opao epy 2/2 -1201 (2H-2-1200H): c1 = 0,8 1; c4 = 0,05; c5 = 14 8; T4 = 35 45 /;

pooce yoc aa ycaoa c epyo 1/2 -1201: c1 = 1,5 3; c4 = 0,04; 3 = 0,02; p = 0,1; c5 = 20 30, p = 0,8; T4 = 5 /. Ha pooeoc epy 1/2 -1201 ocec o oepae cyce, oaaeo epyy.

Cxe 3 4 pec ex cyax, oa pa oo opa poecc, a cyce, ocyaa a ycaoy, e oe eocpeceo oaac epyy -a o oepa epo a. Bx cxeax ocoa ac epo a e ocaa xo epy, a ocoa ac o a xo cyceocoa. pa epy, coepa eoy ac o epo a, oc ycao aapaypy, pacooey o ycao.

o cxee 4 paoae ycaoa c epya 1/2 -801 pooce cyaa ao a ocoxecx aoax. oaae pao ycao ceye: c = 4 6; c= 1,3 1; c2 = 1200; 3 = 0,012 0,015; c4 = 15 30; T4 = 5 /.

Cxe 7 8 pec ex cyax, oa ya ycao e oc ee ac e e aaac. o cxee 7 paoaa oa ycaoa c epyo 1/2 -401 a cyce eoo apoaa ap. oaae ee pao: c = 4 5; c2 = ; c4 = 0,04; c5 = 10 20; T4 = 1/; c1 = 1.

o cxee 8 paoaa ycaoa c epyo 2/2 -2201 a cyce execoo apoaa ap. B aece cyce cooa ayy-p.

oaae pao ycao ceye: c = 4 5; c1 = 0,28; c2 = 1126; 3 = 0,2; c4 = 0,1; c5 = 3 5; T4 = 30 40 /.

Cxe 5 6 pec oa, oa ea apya o epo ae a cyceoco, paoa o cxea 3 4. Bo cyae cyee pocxo a aa cycee ocoe.

o cxee 5 paoa ycao c epya p payc Mae (aep poopa 1400 ), cycee a "paec" aepo 3 ocoo aepo 6 a cyce xopcoo a oce pcaa, a ae ycaoa c epya 1/-801, cycee-pooo aepo 250 ocoo aepo 6 a cyce oapeo co pooce xopcoo a.

Cxe 9 10 pec ex e cyax, o cxe 7 8, p yco, ec pa ycao e oc, ea aa e aaaec ycaoe.

Cxe 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 a pc. 20 oac o ocax ocyce po (= 0). ooy aaa apaepo ooo paccapac cxe 2, 4, 6, 8, 10.

Ec paccapa oo, a a pax ooa o epo a, yec ycoe epapoc ooo ycaoe, oo oy e cce ypae, cax ey coo oo ycaoo.

Oa ccea ypae poa cxe 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 peea a. 1. pya ccea ypae poa cxe 7, 8, 9, 10 peea a. 2.

e py cxe (pc. 21, 22) oac ey coo ooa paa. B epo pye cxe pa oc ycao, o opo opaaec ycaoy.

cyce T+;C T2+2; CC - O ao cyce T1+1; C1 T1+1; C3;3;poa poa T4+4; CT4+4; C - A - A ocao ocao T5+5; C5 T5+5; Cpa pa a ) a) T+; C T7+7; CC cyce T2+2; CO ao T6+6; C6 T2+2; CT1+1; C1 3;poa T4+4; C - A ocao T5+5; Cpa ) Pc. 21 Cxe ooo c oo paa ycao Ta opao, aa oo accpoa ce cxe a e py ycao aaece acocey xapaepca ooo.

2.1.2 cceoae pax apaepo a pooeoc epy p cceoa apaepo ooa paee a eea acoc ey oeco epo a, ocyae epyy xoe epy + + + = - 1 e B = 3 c4 + 3c4; B1 = 3P3c4 + 3c4; 3 = ; 3 oeco poo 1+ 4 oc, ocyae epyy ey pee; P oe pacope epo a poo oc; P3 oe aee o a ocaa poo oc; c4 = 4 / T4 coooee o epo a ocae oce epy; c5 = 5 /T5 coooee o epo a pae oce epy;

c1 = 1 /T1 coooee o epo a cyce, ocyae epyy.

oaaee eoc pao epy ye c coooee [7] - = =. (14) + + +1 y U ec ye yoca epo a c pao c5, cye cyce epe epyo c1, oeca poo oc 3 aoc ocaa oce epy c4. Opee e x apaepo a xo epo a epy U = f (c5). acoc oo peca - =.

+1 + + 1 o ypaee paooo epo. Ec a oc oopa p aco, ypaee epo ye +1 + + 1 1 = + + e = + = - +1 +1 ae c5 oy ec o aeeo (c5 = c1), oa c epa aa yxo c pao, o aoeo (c5 = ), oa c epa aa ocaec ocae. pooa y o epae aa e ee, o ceecye o ocyc cpeya.

Haoee aee = y ee p (c5 = ). C yeee + oeca epo a pae aee y yeaec. Haeee aee y ee p c5 = c1. pa U = f (c5) p c5 = 1; c4 = 0,03; 3 = 0; P3 = 0 (yco epypoa oooepaa xopcoo a a oae "PAA") oaa a pc. 23. aao cpeaxc pae cyaa epy ae c5 cey: 5 < c5 < 50; U = f2 (c1).

paee (14) p epeeo c ec ypaee po c opae yo aoa. o oaae, o y opao poopoaa oecy o a ocyae cyce. pa U = f2 (c1) p c5 = 50; c4 = 0,03; 3 = 0; P3 = 0 oaa a pc. 24. aao ae c1: 0,8 < c1 < 1,7; U = f3 (3).

U 1,0,0,0,0,0 50 100 cPc. 23 pa U = f1(c5) p c1= 1; 3 = 0; P3 = 0; c4 = 0,U 1,0,0,0,0,0 10 20 30 40 50 cPc. 24 pa U = f2 (c1) p c5 = 50; c4 = 0,03; 3 = 0; P3 = paee ao cyae a =, + e q1 = c5 c1; m1 = (1 + c4) + P (c5 + 1) ; n1 = c5 (1 PP3c4) c4 (1 + PP3). o ypaee epo, oopoe p aee oce oopa pe cey =, e = + ; Y = U.

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