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ooy oe pooeoc pa eoxoo cpec ooo cpoy yae ocaa c poao epeopo. Hapep, p cee ocaa c apaaoo ayy-pa oo oa co ocaa oe pa 5 ( acoc o coc ocaa).

paeca xoc = hoc axo V = ocae aee V ypaee (7), p e R. = 0 pea eo ooceo, oy ypaee opeee pooeoc poa, eoxoo opaoa ocaa po o (5 ) = coy paceoe ypaee o ye, ycaaa pooeoc ca po.

pa, o oeo ca ce apaaa n axoc oax epoo oeoa, opoo oeoa , yae ocaa peeepa a ce.

pooeoc oex ca c ceyx coooe:

epoe oeoae = +, e n. co ce apaaa, axoxc oax poa po, n. = n ( + + nyp).

Bopoe oeoae = +.

aee ocaa peeepa a = +.

Opeee oy pooeoc a, c, paeca = + 'o + + ''o +.

yp Copoc pae apaaa, o/ n =.

epae y pax o poecca axo a ocoa oo, o y poopoa pooeoc cooecyx ca. Hapep, epa yo o poa cocae = Bea V= o paece pecae coo oe paa, oyeoo co ce oepxoc F apaaa a 1 oopo. pooeoc pa o pay Q axo ypae, 3/cy Q = 3600 a oy pooeoc ycao o pay Qo (3/cy) a pooeoc ooo pa, opeee oeco apaax ayy-po coooe = o pooeoc coceo poa t opeeec cee opye apaaa =.

apaa ayy-p aoee yepca aapa, po oopeeoo oye xopoo pooo cyeoo ocaa oeppoaoo paa.

1.6.2 coe ayy-p co ayy-p epepoo ec cy poa oeppoax cyce, oa eoxoa oa pya oepxoc, e peyec aeo po ocaa [4].

co ayy-p coco 1 10 epax co oepxoc 1 2, ypeex a opoao oo ay. Ba c ca paaec ope, ee opy oypa c y aepa apaa, co oopx pao cy co. c p pae o acoo cpee xo apa o aooy opyac cyce (pc. 7, 8).

a c coco oo pax py pyy ceopo 3 c pe (oa pa) oo oepxoc (pc. 8).

ocoa ceopa eec oa ooa c peao pyo, oopa caec cooecyee oepce aa coee ceop c o poox aao, a oope paee o a. Capy a ceop oy eo poao a, oa opy py. Ceop cpee py c pyo oapo a, ae eo aa e a oax yoopae aa.

oo ( y) copoe ooo aa paa pacpeeea ooa, coea c c ayya caoo oyxa. p ec pacpeeeo oo o e, o apaao pe.

Cyce opo ocyae cy, a o caec epe epeo apyo.

Cyce epeea c eaa. c paac co copoc 0,1 o/ (oa o 20 o/). pa ocacaec epe a, pee ceopo, peay pyy, aa ooo aa epe pacpeeey ooy cop.

Ocao cpeaec oa c yx copo ca aae ey aepa opa a pacopep.

coe ayy-p axo pooe peee, a opao, oooax poocax opopyo, eaypeco, eeo pyx opacx poeoc.

ococa aapao oo oec ay oa, aaey ae, a ae oooc ae poao a a oex ceopax o epe ee oca, oy pyy oepxoc.

Pc. 8 Cxea coee ceopa ca c o ao:

1 coa; 2 a; 3 ceop ca;

4 yep; 5 o a; 6 pooe aa p, ecoo opaae oac pee aoo pa:

1) eoooc po ocaa;

2) epaoepoc o ocaa;

3) eoooc pee aaaeo ycpoca.

Ocooe aaee cox ayy-po paeee cyce c oee eee oopoo o coey cepcooy cocay epo ao c ecoo copoc ocae e pacpecac ocao, e pey po. Toa ocaa oa oca eee 4 e eee 8 p copoc ocae ac e oee /c.

1.6.3 Aoaec p-pecc AM p-pecc cy poa oocepcx cyce, coepax o o 600 /3 eex ac eepaypo o 5 o 80 C opayx oca c o paec copoee.

p-pecc AM ocyece poae, poy peccoae ocaa c oa coe ocaa ooy axo peee pax opacx poeoc: xeco, eo, yoo, poeaypeco, opopyo, eo, epaeco, a ae p poa poex ox cox o [5].

p-pecc AM (pc. 9) coco opoao pacooex poax . p oyca ey opayec aop 45 .

epeee aae poax ocyecec ao o epoexaec ao, ape pacpe p-pecca aa 50 70 c.

poaa a (pc. 10) coco yx ace: epx e c pea ycpoco ooa paa e, oeo e pa opaye p ca aepy poa. Mey epxe e ac ycaoe peoe apa, oope p oae a x o o aee 15105 H/oa y ay cyce peccy ocao.

poaa a e ecoeo e aoopao poya ey poa a poc ee apaao p poo, ycaoe ooo ao . B e ac pa a poxo epe aepy peeepa.

o ooa cex exooecx oepa oycac, opay aop xoa ocaa, oop occ eoo pocpaca p epee a.

Ocao pyaec c yx copo p-pecca. Bo pe py ocaa aoaec aec oaa o aepy peeepa, e a poaec oaec cpea ea.

paee p-pecco, ocyeceoe epopaec aoao, oycae a ooc aoaecy eo paoy o pee pee, a oooe ooepaooe ypaee.

o oecy ocox exooecx oepa p-pecc AM ooec c poo e po ocaa.

ea y pa, copacaec co cpeo, oaac yepoco ca eox epax cpe, oppooo-cox cae aa cx apeccx.

Pc. 9 Cxea ec aoaecoo aepoo papecca AM:

1 poae ; 2 poaa a;

3 o cea ocaa; 4 aoe ycpoco;

5 a epx yopa; 6 ca; 7 a oa;

8 exa aa; 9 ye peeepa; 10 pacopep;

11 oeop paa cyce, cooeceo Pc. 10 Cxea pao pyx pacpeeex ycpoc:

1 oeop; 2 poaa a; 3 a;

4 epx a; 5 apaa; 6 cpa pye co;

7 oeop oa; 8, 9, 10 o aao oa, ooa cpoca paa poo oc, cooeceo;

11 aa oeopa ae o pao p-pecca c opoa aepa oe cyae coco oepa ca , oa cyce, poa, po ocaa, eo poy, paa papy c oopee epeeee a ee poo. p o paoa pa aoapoaa, o oycoae aeoe yeee eo pooeoc o cpae c p-pecco, ocyae pyy.

AM e oepxoc poa 2,5 50 2. Oco peyeca x po, poe x oo aoaa, c paa oepxoc poa, oooc p oo apa peypoa oy aoc ocaa xopoe yco peeepa a poecce pao pa.

1.6.3.1 PACET POBOTEHOCT pacea pooeoc oaoo pea o ocay pae ceye exooece apaep pao aoaecoo p-pecca AM:

aee poa P = 5 104 /2.

aee po P = 5 104 /2.

aee pocy peccoa apao Pc = 5 104 /2.

Boc paa a oc poo oc.

Ocao oaec o coepa pacopx e oee C2 = 1 10 -3 /3 o C1 = 16 10 /3.

Bpe cooaex oepa t = 120 c.

Baoc ocaa W = 30 %.

Ooee oea ocaa oey paa xoc = 0,2.

eoe copoee ocaa roc = 5 1010 c/4.

ooc ocaa = 0,5 103 /3.

ocaa po K = 1,69.

Oa co ocaa opeeec o ypae (10) 1 - = = 1 = 5,5 .

l 1 1+ Oaa pooeoc opeeec o ypae (9) 1 1 - = 1 - - 1 1 + 14 1 + 1 1 = /2.

1.6.3.2 PACET MEXAHMA AMA Pace yc, ecyx p paoe p-pecca.

cxoe ae (pc. 11): a = 231 c; b = 119 c; S = 1,8 c; P = 15 c/c2 paoee aee poa; P = 3P = 3 15 = = 45 c/c2 yeoe aee a poae coa epeoc.

Opeee oa F = (a S) (b S) = (231 1,8) (119 1,8) = 26 800 c2.

Opeee oepxoc poa Fp= (a + b 2S) 2S = (231 + 119 2 1,8) 2 1,8 = 1250 c2.

ce a y o ae poa = PF = 15 26 800 = 404 000 c.

ce o ca poa Pp = PFp = 45 1250 = 56 200 .

Oee yce p paoe, ecyee a c, coca:

P = + Pp = 404 000 + 56 200 = 460 200 c.

pacea pae P = 460 000 .

Opeee yce aa Qa = Pp + + G, e G ec ox ace, pae 10 000 c; oe oaoc, + =.

+ + + a S Pc. 11 Paa - = = = 41 1 c/.

1 11 e Lc = 429 c a c; Fc oa cee c. Ca cocaea 2-x eepo 40. oa cee eepa 61,5 c2; Fc = 123 c2; Ec = 2,1 c/c2; nc = 4 (co ce).

- = = = 1 1 c/.

1 11 e Lp = 87 c (a paa exaa aa); Fp = 12,8 c2 (oa cee paa); np = 4 (oeco pao), Epm = 2,1 106 c/c2.

- = = = 1 1 c/, 1 e Lp= 0,3 20 = 6 c cyapa oa poa; Ep = 45 c/c2 oy ypyoc pe.

- = = = 1 1, 1 e L = 0,2 20 = 4 c cyapa oa a; E = 1700 c/c2 oy ypyoc ea.

- 41 1 + 1 1 - - = = - - - 41 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 - ce aa Qa = 56 200 + 0,576 10-2 404 000 + 10 000 = 68 520 c.

pae pacea Qa = 70 000 c.

Xo epxe exaa aa H (pc. 12), = 10, 1 = 65, l = .

Opeee ey xoa epxe :

H = 2l (cos cos 1);

H = 2 870 (cos 10 cos 65) = 980 .

Xo epxe (pace) 49 20= 980 .

Opee xo a S = l (sin 1 sin ) = 870 (sin 65 sin 10) = 635 .

S b P l S Pc. 12 eaeca cxea exaa aa Opeee yce e p poa P = P tg = 460 000 tg 10 = 81 000 .

pae a ca 40X.

peapeo pae [ ] = 500 /c2.

Opee aep a 4 4 = = = 14,3 c.

pae c peo 160X16.

Bype aep d = 13,25 c.

oa cee = = =1 c2.

4 Hapee coca = = 590 c/c2.

pae co oopoo a n = 30 o/.

Opeee pe aa = = =1 .

Opeee ooc, eoxoy aa, c yeo pe. ce p ae T = + 1+, e f = 0,1 oe pe; r = 7,5 c payc oc.

T = 70 000 1 + 1+ = 20 100 c.

1 Opeee py oe a e Mp = Td tg ( + ), H e d = 148 ; = arctg = arctg = 156' yo oea a; = 545' yo 14 pe.

M = 20 100 14,8 tg (156' + 545') = 40 000 c .

Heoxoa ooc epoae = = = B.

4 pae oe epepy oe aa K1 = 1,6, oa = = =1 B.

pae epoae A02-61-4, ooc N = 13 , co oopoo n = o/.

1.6.3.3 PACET PBOA TAH Pace yc, ecyeo a a p pye ocaa. Ta pacooea a p-pecce o cxee, oaao a pc. 13. Ha a axoc ocao eco G.

SSG Q1 1 QPc. 13 Cxea e poao a Haoe ycpoco aae a c yce S0. Ho cea ocaa paec c yce Q1, o oc poo paec c yce Q2. Ho oc a ocycye.

Ha p-pecce AM 50 eec 20 pacex 20 poo.

ce a oce 20-o poa coca (pc. 14) = 1+ + + + 1 + 1 + pae oe ec ocaa, /c3 .

oepxoc oo , 2 2,..

Toa ocaa, ..

SII I TSPc. 14 Cxea apyo Bec ocaa a e G = F h = 2,5 104 4 2 10 -3 = 200 c.

ce pa oa cea ocaa a Q1 = 10 c ce pa oa oc poa Q2 = 4 c.

oe pe a o ca f = 0,3.

oe pe oa o poy f1 = 0,5.

poa = 0,98.

Ca P = G f + Q1 f + Q2 fP = 200 0,3 + 10 0,3 + 4 0,5 = 65 c.

S0 = 100 c yce ae a exaa ae.

ce a coca 1 = 1+ + + + + + =1 c.

Copoc e a V = 0,235 /c, . . . epea = 0,84.

Opee eoxoy ooc epoae = = = 4 B.

1 1 1 poa ycaaae epoae A02-42-4, N = 5,5 B, n = 1450 o/ (pc.

15).

2 1 4 6 Pc. 15 Cxea poa a:

1 epoae; 2 opeea epeaa, 3 peyop; 4 ya coa; 5 yaa epeaa;

6 poo po; 7 po po 2 EHTPPOBAHE Haoee pacpocpae cocoo paee x eoopox cce o ece epoex c ec epypoae ( yoae), oopoe ocyecec aax, aaex epy. Ocoa ac epy apaa (opa) co co pa cea, paac c oo copoc a epao opoao ay.

Paa ceye poecc paee cyce epyax: epoeoe poae, epoeoe ocaae, epoeoe oceee.

epoeoe poae pecae coo poecc paee cyce epyax c pa apaaa. Bype oepxoc aoo apaaa opa poao a. Cyce epoeo co opacaec cea apaaa, p o epa aa ocaec a oepxoc a, a oc o ece epoeo c poxo co co ocaa, a yaec apyy epe oepc apaae.

epoeoe poae oe cyae caaec pex oceoaeo poeax ecx poecco:

1) poa c opaoae ocaa;

2) yoe ocaa;

3) yae ocaa oc, yepaeo oeyp ca.

p oo epoeoo poa oe ocya coa cee oeoa ocaa.

epoeoe ocaae pecae coo poecc paee cyce epyax, ex apaa co co cea. Cyce oc ac apaaa o ece epoeo c opacaec cea.

Heocpeceo y ceo opayec co ocaa, a oc opaye ype co ecec apaaa ocyae a paeee cycee. oac epx, oc epeaec epe apay apaaa yaec apyy. p epoeo ocaa pocxo a ecx poecca: ocaee epo a, yoee ocaa.

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