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A. M. MOB OOPOBAHE PAEEH X HEOHOPOHX CCTEM:

TP EHTP N N ATECTBO TT NN Mcepco opaoa Poccco eepa Taoc ocyapce exec yepce A. M. M OB OOPOBAHE PAEEH X HEOHOPOHX CCTEM:

TP EHTP onyeo Muucmepcmo opaoau Poccuco eepauu aecme yeoo nocou cmyemo cux yex aeeu, oyauxc no cneuaocmu "Mau u annapam xuuecux npouocm" anpaeu noomou unoupoax cneuaucmo "epo- u pecypcocepeaue npoecc xuueco mexoouu, emexuuu u uomexoouu" BBEEHE Te pa xeco, eo, aoo, eo pyx cex opace poeoc pey aeoo yye ocpy a aapao, oe x aeoc paoococooc. paec o cex opacx poeoc pxoc e eo c eoopo ccea oopyoae, peaae x paee. Cpe ceo ooopa peeoo oopyoa aoee pacpocpaee oy p epy.

e acoeo yeoo oco ec oaoee c oco ocpy po epy, eopeec ocoa poecco poa epypoa, a ae cxea opaa exooecx poecco.

Ocooe ae yeeo ooy popeccoy oopyoa.

ocoe peaaeo cyeo ceaoce 170500 170600 p ye ypco "Ma aapa xecx pooc", "oexa", "Texooecoe oopyoae ex pooc", a ae ypcoo oo poepoa.

Maepa oco peca ooey cocay ac ypca e, aex a exao-aocpoeo ayee Taocoo ocyapceoo execoo yepcea.

Maepa oco oy oe ae eepa-exaa ocpyopa, paoa a pooce.

1 TPOBAHE poae aa poecc paee cyce c peee opcx epeopoo, oope aepa epy ay cyce poyca y. o poecc ocyecec p oo po. Paeee cyce oo poo oye epo o a, oa pya aa ec oxoo, a ae oopeeoo oye epo o a.

poecc poa oe pocxo p ocoo epeeo paoc ae p ocoo epeeo copoc poecca.

poae oo poo p oceyx paocx ae:

o ayyo 5104 9104 H/2 (0,5 104 0,9 104 /2);

o aee caoo oyxa e oee 3 104 H/(0,3 104 /2);

p oae ope epoe acoco o 50 104 H/2 (5 /2);

o pocaec aee co cyce o 5 104 H/2 (0,5 /2).

p paee cyce c eoo oepae oocepco epo a aco pe poae cooaee eeca, pecye pooe epx ac op poao epeopo. o e pe ao, ep, acec, eoy, apoa yo, peecy yy.

Bcooaee eeca aoc peapeo a poay epeopoy e co oo e oee 50 oa cyce.

1.1 PABHEHE TPOBAH By eooo paepa op coe ocaa poao epeopoe, a ae ao copoc e o a opax oo ca, o poae poeae aapo oac, p o yco copoc poa a a oe po poopoaa paoc ae, o opao poopoaa oc o a oey paecoy copoe co ocaa poao epeopo. B poecce poa ae paoc ae paecoo copoe co ocaa c eee pee eec, ooy epeey copoc poa paa epeao ope, (/c) = (1) B cooec c e oe ocooe epeaoe ypaee poa ee :

= (2) +, e V oe paa, 3; F oepxoc poa, 2; pooeoc poa, c; P paoc ae, H/2; oc o a cyce, Hc/2; Roc copoee co ocaa, -1; R. copoee poao epeopo, -1.

Bey R. poecce poa oo ca peo ocoo.

Bea Roc c opacae o co ocaa eec o y aae poa o acaoo ae oe poecca.

eppoa ypae (2) eoxoo ycao acoc ey copoee co ocaa oeo oyeoo paa. pa o ae poopoaoc oeo ocaa paa, ooa ooee oea ocaa oey paa epe xoc. Toa oe ocaa ye pae xoc V.

Bece c e, oe ocaa oe pae poeee hoc F, e hoc coa co ocaa , ceoaeo xoc V = hoc F.

Oca oa co ocaa a poao epeopoe coca hoc = xoc. (3) Copoee co ocaa oo pa paeco Roc= roc xoc, (4) e roc yeoe oeoe copoee co ocaa, -2.

paeca (4) ceye, o ea roc xapaepye copoee, oaaeoe ooy o a paoep coe ocaa oo 1 .

oca aee Roc ypae (4) ypaee (2), oy = (5) + p poa p ocoo ae P = const p ocoo eepaype ce xoe ypaee (5) e, a cee V c oco.

(6) + =.

Pae oe ac oceeo ypae a roc xoc / 2F, oy V2 + 2 = (7) paee (7) oaae eocpeceo acoc pooeoc poa o oea paa. Pea eo ooceo V, oy acoc oea paa o pooeoc poa. o ypaee peo ecae cae ocaa, ocoy p P = const e roc xoc ae oco.

ypae (5) ceye, o p P = const o epe yee oea paa, a, ceoaeo, pooeoc poa copoc poa yeaec (yeaec oa ocaa eo copoee, copoc poa yeaec).

1.2 TPOBAHE EPEOPO O paoo opa poao epeopo o oo ac pooeoc pa coa oyaeoo paa. Ooaeoy opy epeopo peecye cepeaa poepa ee a aao cyce.

poaa epeopoa oa oaa aca paepo op oopeeo oecea oyee ocaoo coo paa. Oa oa xopoo aepa epe ac cyce, e eooe paecoe copoee ooy paa, eo oec o ocaa, oppoo-coo, e ayxa, e ocaoy pooc eocooc.

epeopo oaa eopaecx opaecx aepao. Maepao poax epeopoo oe cy epc, xoo, ceece ooa, epaa, ceo, acec, eaece aepa p.

1.3 POMBA OCAA o poecc pooc p ee oc, oopa aepaac opax ocao, pyo oc. poa ocaa ya ex cyax, oa eo epe ac o ocooe o o a oa a aa ec e poyo. poy ocaa poo y cocoa a pe ae, e o epeeaec c poo oc, a oyey cyce coa pae a pe.

poecc po a pe oee coe, e poae, a a poecce yacy e oc, pae o coey cocay. ooy poaece o-xece aooepoc ee oce opax ocaa oee coe, e p poa.

1.4 HAOA POBOTEHOCT TPOB HEPEPBHOO ECTB ocooo ypae poa (5) ceye, o p pox pax ycox copoc poa e oe pooeoc pa e e, e ee oe oyeoo paa poopoaa oy oey oa co ocaa a poao epeopoe. ooy oe pooeoc pa eoxoo cpec ooo cpoy yae ocaa c poao epeopo.

po epepoo ec o paoco peoa ya c poao epeopo co ocaa aee o, oycoe coca ocaa ocoeoc ycpoca, peeoo eo c c epeopo.

1.5 HAOA POBOTEHOCT TPOB EPOECOO ECTB pooeoc o ocay c 1 2 pa epoecoo ec (ca oocc y-p, py-p, p-pecc, aoaece p-pecc a AM p.) opeeec ypaee [1], / = 3600, (8) e oc ooc ocaa, /3, t pe a, c, t = t + t + t ; t pe oe cooaex oepa (papy, paop, cop ..), c; t pe poa, c; t pe po ocaa, c.

Bpe po ocaa opeeec o ypae Poca [2] t = l (9) e K ocaa po, opeeea cepeao a aopaopo poao opoe; V = copoc po, /c; c1 aaa oepa pacopeoo eeca poo oc, %; c2 oea oepa pacopeoo eeca poo oc, %.

Coaco oey ypae poa oyae V= = + e P epea ae p poe, /2; roc = roco + Ps yeoe copoee ocaa cyae, oa P > P (ec P P, o roc = roc), -2; R. copoee poao epeopo, -1; ooee oc poo oc oc paa.

l oca aee V ypaee (9) o ooaee A =, oy + t = Toa pe a pao + + t = + + oca aee t ypaee (8), oy = + + + + cpea aa oo ypae = ae ceyee aee oao o ocaa hoc. o=. (10) + p P < P hoc. o =.

+ p Pn = P hoc. o =.

1+ p ocyc po c1 = c2,, ln = 0 A = 0, oa hoc. o =.

ypae (10) o, o ea oaoo co ocaa ee ac o copoe pye epeopo, oopoe c paec eo ooee peoaaec ocoo eo. B ypae (8) ce e ac o P.

acoc o co ocaa hoc o ae P ye eca (10). acoc copoe ocaa roc o ae P ae eca roc = roco + " Ps. (11) oca acoc ypaee (8), oy Qoc = + + + (12) cpea aa ypae (12) ae aee ae, cooecyeo acyy pooeoc P = (13) - o e aee ec oa po.

paee (13) oaae, o oaoe aee poa ee eco p s" > 1. oco ocao oaae co aee s" o poac p oao ae.

1.6 TP HEPEPBHOO EPOECOO ECTB 1.6.1 apaae ayy-p apaa ayy-p c apyo pye oepxoc ec aoee pacpocpae po aoo a. O coco apaaa c py ea, opa c eao, oox pyo, pacpeeeo oo, poa apaaa poa ea.

o apaa c oepc a ooo oepxoc, op eaeco ceo poao a, paaec ope c eoo copoc (0,1 2,6 o/).

opo aoeo cycee, oopy opyeo 0,3 0,4 oepxoc apaaa. apaa paee paa epeopoa a e, aa oopx epe aa oo ae aa cooaec c pacpeeeo ooo, pao opeo oepxoc a. Pacpeeea ooa cy oceoaeoo coee ee apaaa c ayya caoo oyxa. opyee cyce e apaaa cooac c ayyo e. o ece paoc ae capy yp apaaa ocao oaaec a eo oepxoc, a pa ocacaec yp apaaa yaec epe pacpeeey ooy.

oepxoc ee apaaa, a oopo oaaec ocao, aaec oo poa (oa poa I). oa cooecye e apaaa xo cyce, ocao ocyaec p papee (oa pocy II). ae ocao poaec oo, oaaeo epe py, pe poe o ocacac, a pa, epe pacpeeey ooy. Bce a poo o e oe (oa po pocy III) ocao cyc oyxo, oop pocacaec epe co ocaa. oce oo e coec epe pacpeeey ooy c e caoo oyxa (oa oy IV). Boyx e oo cy, o papxe ocao, aoap ey oeae eo oceyee yaee.

p oxoe ee c pocye ocao oy pepaaec oaa caoo oyxa, ocao aae c oepxoc a o ece c ec. Ho cy ocoo apae ococ co ocaa, oeeoc o a. p aee pae apaaa a, ocooea o ocaa, oaec ye poy oyxo (oa peeepa a V).

Bce a ec oepa, cooecy ooy oopoy apaaa, oopec coa (pc. 1).

Ca poe oyx o Oya (IV) Cyce Peeepa a (V) pa epe 1 5 8 6 3 Pc. 1 Cxea eooo apaaa ayy-pa:

1 opo; 2 ocao; 3 a; 4 cea apaa; 5 epeopoa;

6 pya; 7 py po ocaa; 8 oepc (12 .) Cyce oaec opo co copoc, pao copoc poa ecoo oe, oco ypoe cyce ope oepaec p oo epeo py. peopae oooc ocae cyce epeeaec ope aaec eao.

Oca oo 8 10 cac c pye oepxoc p oo oa.

Ce ox coe ocaa pooc ecoe cxo ooo. ooo poxo epe ccey poo, a ep po ocao aae caec c eo oo, oce eo ooo poaec opaaec apaay. ee ooa ocyecec cece eo pe o oepxoc apaaa.

poaa ycaoa apaaoo ayy-pa (pc. 2) ae, poe pa 1, ae a 2 c eao, pe 3 (pecep), oyy 4, ayy-acoc acoc 6 oa paa.

pa ece c oyxo pacpeeeo oo ocyae pecep, oopoo oaaec acoco, a a oyx e oyy 4, e aa oeec o pye 7 oc ycao, oyx e oaaec ayy-acoco 5.

cy ococ apaaoo eooo ayy-pa oocc yepcaoc, .e. pooc opao paoopax cyce, oooc ooe aepao, cox xec ax cpeax, eoc ocya.

B o e pe p oaae cey eocaa eoa pya oepxoc cpaeo coa cooc, apyeoc aeo po ocy ocaa, oaeoc pacpeeeo oo o pye oepxoc, o po aepe paa pox o yp apaaa ycoe x pae oo, .e. oyee epaaeoo paa (pc. 3 6).

apaae ayy-p pec p ye opye cyce 130 140 paee cyce c oopo paepo ac eoo copoc ocae (eee 18 c-1).

1.6.1.1 PACET POBOTEHOCT [3] Pace coc opeee o aao pooeoc copoc epeee oepxoc poa, a ae ca po. Bea oepxoc poa oe aaa pa peeo apaaoy ayy-py p yco, o copoee poao epeopo R. (7) oo peepe. O xo pacea cey.

II III IV I Pc. 5 Pacpeeea aa 1 2 5 Pc. 6 Coco c ocaa:

1 oo; 2, 3 ecoe ypa;

4 cxo ooo; 5 peo ao Ha ocoa oa pa aey oy co ocaa, a a oye aoe pooeoc pa a ocoa ypae poa (5) ceye, o p pox pax ycox copoc poa pooeoc pa e e, e ee oe oyeoo paa poopoaa oy oey oa co ocaa a poao epeopoe.

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