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И тогда, английская революция предстает перед нами не только как революция политическая и экономическая, но и как революция в культуре. Революция, не просто переменившая соотношение «линии театра» и «линии аристократии», в пользу первой, но и оказавшая существенное влияние на уровень культуры феодальной аристократии в Англии. Это касается прежде всего изменения характера самого творческого акта. Произошло забывание целого ряда ценностей Елизаветинской Англии. У Гилилова приводится подробная история шекспировского вопроса из которого видно, что в течении 50 лет после английской революции пьесы Шекспира мало кого интересовали и весьма не регулярно шли в английских театрах. Подлинное Вадим СЕМЕНКОВ возрождение интереса началось еще позже – к концу XVIII в. В культурологии такая ситуация обозначается как доминирование механизма забывания в культуре по отношению к механизму ее памяти. Прежде всего забыванию подверглась сама игра как тайнодействие. Очевидно, что такого рода игра, где целая группа людей выстраивает ситуацию таким образом, чтобы имя художественного лидера эпохи никогда не стало известно широкому кругу людей (но не кругу посвященных), свидетельствует о наличии не просто высокой культуры. Здесь мы видим нечто большее: наличие высокой культуры, достигшей крайней степени своего развития и обозначившей себя в знаке. Шекспир предстает как знак этой культуры. Высокая культура Англии XVII в. заимела свой знак – Шекспир – такое в истории мировой культуры бывает крайне редко. Напомним, что трактовка Автора как переписчика пьес не позволяет указывать на него как знаковую фигуру высокой культуры. Конечно можно говорить о «высоком положении актера в ту эпоху», но лишь в расчете на то, что читать это будут люди без гуманитарного образования.

Игра такого уровня сложности, представление о которой дается в рецензируемой нами книге, требует значительного числа лиц понимающих и принимающих правила этой игры. И в книге Гилилова приводится огромный фактический материал, указывающий на наличие такой культуры в Англии рубежа XVI-XVII вв. Однако, достигнув такой степени сложности культура становится очень неустойчивой и достаточно легко поддается замене на иной, более простой тип культуры. Тут стоит указать на замечание Константина Леонтьева о «цветущей сложности» в культуре. За очень небольшой период – в несколько десятилетий – культура английской аристократии совершив творческий рывок, обрела к началу XVII в. очень сложный язык, позволяющей создавать качественно иную объективацию в культуре. Последствия этого рывка были подобны кессоновой болезни: ситуация в культуре и в обществе стала неустойчивой.

Можно предположить, что Английской революции не нужно было прибегать к внешне радикальным формам для смены типа культуры, ибо степень сопротивления прежнего типа культуры была незначительной. Представляется, что культура английской аристократии не просто сдала свои приоритетные позиции, будучи постоянно теснимой на социальную периферию, она потеряла свой прежний уровень. Похоже, что это выразилось прежде всего в изменении самого творческого акта как некоего таинства. Стал исчезать дух корпоративности очень интересно сочетавшийся с понятием свободной личности. Конечно, эта культура продолжала и продолжает функционировать, но вряд ли в дальнейшем она достигала художественного ШЕКСПИР КАК РЕПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ уровня культуры Елизаветинской эпохи. Однако сам факт наличия аристократической культуры в дальнейшей английской истории создавал иллюзию преемственности аристократической культурной традиции. Конечно, о преемственности этой традиции можно говорить, но, пожалуй, лишь в сугубо формальном смысле. А по сути имела место утрата определенного культурного уровня.

«Линия театра» в английской культуре не просто взяла верх над «линией аристократии», а предстала как ей равноправная в прошлом. Соответствующим образом стала выстраиваться и культурная политика. Шекспир становится политической фигурой и вопрос о Шекспире – политическим вопросом. Суть политики – в определении центра и периферии культуры. Центр определяется исходя из того, где осуществляется главный творческий опыт культуры. Если этот опыт осуществляется сейчас как тогда в «линии театра», то нынешние приоритеты легитимны уже по праву своей культурной преемственности. Исходя из такого понимания легитимности традициям современной британской аристократической культуры задаются те правила и нормы поведения, которые генетически восходят к демократической, простонародной Англии. И тогда имя Шекспира в этой культурной политике обозначает не реальную утрату определенного культурного наследия, а его мнимое обретение.

В. Семенков, SOCIAL DANCE AS A SOCIAL THERMOMETER Dedicated to Selma Jeanne Cohen Sergey SIPAROV Among a great variety of expressive media the social dance plays an important role. This is due to the fact that it is not only present in every known form of the human social behavior, but also to the appeal felt almost by everyone in an appropriate age. Moreover, the great majority of people enjoys dancing throughout all their lives at least as viewers. Actually, we should distinguish two forms of dance: the ballet, which may be called the higher cultural form, since there is a lot of famous choreographic schools basing on various paradigms, and even theories, which are undoubtedly the essential part of the philosophical overview, and the social dance, taking its origin from the folk-lore dancing. In this brief review I would like to regard the changing of the form of the social dance during the last two centuries, paying attention to the influence which social life and its ways produced upon the social dance.



Imagine the great hall in the house of an aristocratic family at the beginning of the XIX century or at the end of the XVIII. The music is playing, the gavotte is «at full speed», or maybe it is a mazurka In any case, if we have a happy chance to stay on the balcony, embracing the hall at the second floor level, and look at the dancing people, and make snap-shots with a portable camera, we can notice the obvious structure in what is going on beneath. The dance is performed not by separate pairs but by quadroons or octaves, the partners are changing according to strict regulations which every dancer seems to know, understand and enjoy. One can't but feel solemnity, be it a slow or a rapid part of the dance, and at the same time there is nothing to make you feel unnatural. If we look at the photo of such a dance, we shall immediately observe the order which resembles crystal to the high extent, with different atoms of two types present in corresponding places, with an obvious symmetry. What a play for a crystallographer! SOCIAL DANCE AS A SOCIAL THERMOMETER Now skip a century. Can anybody resist a temptation to dance, when Strauss himself is to conduct the orchestra, playing waltz in the lively city of Vienna Alas, we have to climb up the staircase to the same balcony or its twin, and throw a look at what is going on. No octaves or even quadroons, pairs are waltzing, waltzing this way and that, crossing the hall in every possible and impossible direction, following trajectories which are most close to circles or figures of eight.

Snap-shoot again, look at the photo. No symmetry, no order, no crystal. Instead of the crystalline order we can observe the «molecules» consisting of two atoms of the different type each. Judging by subsequent photos observation, they move in the ways that have structure.

And this is a circle. Happy molecules they are, waltzing together.

Skip half a century. Jazz is none the worse. Foxtrot is an intrigue, a flirtation, you feel how your blood is running through the arteries following the enchanting rhythm. Being a serious investigators we have to fulfill the same procedure again, only using a better optics. And we see on the photos that the atoms, which these known to us molecules consist of, start to oscillate, the distances between them start to vary.

A decade — and rock-n-roll drew those atoms away from each other. And then twist, shake, rock as it is and the break dance... No more molecules, separate atoms try to find their way, shaking, rotating, oscillating, bending and winding — in complete loneliness. The atoms are different but now it's rather difficult to find which of the two former types they belong to.

What has happened The phenomenon is so similar to the phase transition we know from the Science lessons at school. Really, take a small grain of common salt and observe a structure in it using an electronic microscope or any other such kind of a device, and you will see a cubic lattice in which the atoms of the two types follow each other in a strict order. Warm it gradually, and it will become a liquid in which the molecules of natrium chloride flow, circling in a natural convection. Give it some more heat, the molecules fly in every possible direction, now they have become a gas. More heat, and molecules start to tremble. More — and they dissociate, lonely, though very energetic atoms fill all the space they could reach in their flight. Hardly do they need each other, too high the temperature is.

But the society in the very same manner possesses a social energy which we may as well call temperature, growing with time. The development of civilization, which for some pretty unobvious reasons Sergey SIPAROV we call the progress, makes a human able to get free from all the others (at least one can think so), to move vastly and rapidly, and to shake and tremble in complete loneliness, realizing himself in a mad dance. The beating rhythms and dissonant sounds drive one to the cosmos of forgetfulness, leaving no place and no time to regret. This is a kind of ecstasy, unification with the Universe, existential feeling of space-time in its refined curvature. Farewell to the solemn harmony of mazurka, farewell to the champagne of the waltz, farewell to the bitter aperitiff of the foxtrot, heroin takes the place. What's the next We shall see. And if we wish to learn something about the future perspectives of our society in a global scale, there is a good thermometer of the social temperature — that is a social dance. The only thing we have to do is to analyze the tendency of its development for a dozen years. Now it seems that the cubistic break dance was the peak, the crisis. Good old rock has already been present on the social arena and one shouldn't be much surprised, if in the very beginning of the 21-st century we see waltzing ladies and gentlemen in tail-coats.

S. Siparov, RELIGIOUS «IDENTITY» IN A MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY.

THE INTERDISCIPLINARY TASK OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES AND THEOLOGY CONCERNING CULTURAL STUDIES Sybille FRITSCH-OPPERMANN 1. In Lower Saxony the topic of new religious movements is part of the activities of the Ministry for women's and youth's affairs. A while ago these «new religions» were seen as especially attractive and in many cases also a danger for young people.

Meanwhile however it became quite clear, that not only young people, but people of both sexes, all ages and social backgrounds are members of and/or fascinated by those «new religions». So, if we ask what causes the attraction of those movements, we can not from the very beginning see this question as one within youth sociology or youth policy and youth education.





Let me therefore at this point make some more general observations concerning the «new religious» movements and their influence on the political daily life. A good example for the latter is the so-called «Scientology Church». It's influence on society and also on economics is steadily growing despite all the law cases and political warnings in the recent past.

But, this influence and the methods which sometimes come close to or even are a total denial of human rights and also the reports in all kinds of media – be they objective or not – do not explain it's attraction for people of all ages and social status.

Neither does this all explain the insecurity and helplessness of society and church against all different kinds of new «religious movements».

Statements of some individuals and politicians as well as interdictions overlook, that behind those new movements there are existential fears and longings which obviously do not find an answer in traditional churches and non Christian religious communities. It is therefore necessary to begin with a detailed analysis of different forms of new «religiosity» and new «religious movements» and psychocults in our society. Also the analysis of what makes these movements a problem for their members and for us has to be done. How to explain our fear and insecurities, partly irrational, in dealing with those movements Sybille FRITSCH-OPPERMANN Could it be, that the latter partly arise, since in church and politics and also nowadays philosophy there are no convincing models to deal with the paradoxical relationship, maybe even uncompatability of religion and reason Is the question of secularism still unanswered The concept of freedom of religion and tolerance has to be reconsidered again in a growing multicultural and multireligious as well as secular society. In a situation of a very complicated relationship between church and state – especially in Germany – we have to ask again what the concept of policy and religions is and what the weak points and deficits in this concept are.

In contrast to the US for example the German «Federal Constitutional Court» requires a qualification as regards content for those religious communities to be recognized officially. In dealing with this and also with the contents and practices of «religious groups» it is important to take care of a theological (also in the sense of religious science), sociological, political and economical expertise to be able to judge and – if necessary – also to develop counter strategies.

But there is also the chance for religion/churches and politics to learn about their own shortcomings and possible future changes.

– How to deal with the difficult relation of reason and faith – How to answer the desire for new authorities, power, group identifications and self finding processes – How to answer the desire for a security of salvation – within and after life – How to deal with the desire to be different as a part of the self finding process, even with the help of blasphemic means – Where do economic and political interests use religion only as a sign/advertisement pattern In family, school, church, policy, law etc. preventive information is necessary. Only after that we may ask if and how official actions are necessary to make it difficult or impossible to join some of those movements. Here are of course some among the new «religions» which are typical youth movements. Satanism, black masses and some esoteric practices seem to be typical for younger people. Although they are the expression of a social decline and a following counter-reaction against what is to be considered the traditional society and church, there are also younger people from wealthier backgrounds who join such movements either to fill the vacuum in a capitalistic and conform life, only oriented towards superficial values or to revolt against the meaninglessness of life (no fuRELIGIOUS «IDENTITY» IN A MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY ture). Not seldom secular events hereby get a quasi-religious character (the liturgy of a pop-concert, the knee-fall of football players etc.).

But the phenomenon of the fast growing "new religions" is found in European societies in general (in Eastern Europe the fast growing of such movements could be seen as a counter-reaction against the time of socialist authoritareanism and also against the new nationalisms of traditional churches).

Youth is a part of society and often the weakest part as well. Movements which express the dissatisfaction with society therefore are most likely to be attractive for youth too. On the other hand this means that – like in other aspects too – the disposition of society in general can be seen in what is happening in youth movements in a seismographical way. And this is not only the case since youth is the society of the future – if there will be any at all.

2. It would be too great a generalisation to consider the «new religions» as a part of multicultural society.

True is, that for Islam and Judaism the «new religions» are more attractive where both are no longer a minority. Also true is that nonmonotheistic religions are capable of integrating elements of the «new religions» without losing their identity.

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