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Mcepco opaoa Poccco eepa Taoc ocyapce exec yepce Meoece yaa opoe aa cyeo 3 ypca aooo oee ceaoce 060800 210200 Tao aeco TT 2001 502 (076) 1 73-5 O 753 epeo Peaoo-aec coeo yepcea Peee oop xecx ay, poeccop T .. P. epaa B. . Bopo Cocae A. . O 753 Oco oo. Meo. ya. opoe aa / Coc. A. . . Tao: -o Ta.

oc. ex. y-a, 2001. 31 c.

pee eoece yaa o ye ocox opoco ypca: oo a aya;

ocoe o ao oo; oo apoa; yee B. . Bepacoo o ocepe;

ooo-paoo exa oxpa opyae cpe; op ppoooxpaoo aooaeca;

ooa aooaeca; ooece caap opa, xecoe, paaooe epoaoe ape ocep; opo xoceo eeoc; ooeca cepa; ooeca eoacoc.

a opoc caoopo ycoe yeoo aepaa, opoe aa cco peoeyeo epayp.

Meoece yaa peaae cyeo aooo ayea execx yepceo o ceaoc 060800 210200.

502 (076) 1 73-5 BBEEHE Paoa popaa ypca "Oco oo" peoaae yee cyea eopeecx oco ypca, oee pex aopaopx pao acae oo opoo pao.

ceoy ocoe ypca ye cococoa cceaeca paoa cyea c epaypo o aoy peey eee ceo ceecpa.

epe oee opoo pao cyey eoxoo aeo poa oce e peoeyee peoaaee a yex oco.

ya ycoe yeoo aepaa oe poepea cyea caocoeo. oaec oe a peee e opoc. Omem ye ceo anucam a ucme yau. ae cpae co oe c oeo, oee oe oo paea. Ec B a oo oe, o opoe ye oce e o paepe ay ey. apoe ye oope oy oe a a opoc.

ae epexoe ceyey opocy.

Bopoc caoopo ycoe yeoo aepaa 1 ae opeeee oo a ay.

2 ae op aoec oeca ppo coppoac acoey pee 3 Haoe e py eax oec a ppoy eoea.

4 Haoe apooeoo ape opyae cpe.

5 Oe ocec ape opyae cpe.

6 ao a oc xocee oe apee aocep, ocep pocep opoax 7 Oe ocec ape aocep oco yepoa.

8 a ocec po apee aocep yepoo, peoo xopo 9 ey po apee ooeo (pe, oep, ope, oeao) 10 Be coco oacoc pooe ape ocep ae cpa 11 Paccae o oacoc ape yxoo cpe.

12 o aoe ooeca ccea 13 ax ooeo coco ooeca ccea 14 Paccae o caopeypoa ooecx cceax.

15 Copypye ao ya . xa.

16 e aec epaa ooeco cce 17 Moy cocyecoa a a, aae oy ooecy y, eopaeo oo 18 oe ocoo ao oo.

19 Moe cyecoa ooeca ccea oo ex eeo 20 Copypye ao coxpae .

21 Be coco ao peapoa cce a ee oec 22 ae opypoy aoa pa ooeco cce.

23 aoy ae cpec copoc aoec x opao c opyae cpeo ooeco ccee 24 o yepae ao B. . Bepacoo o cocae oo eeca e 25 Paccae o ooeco pae C. C. apa.

26 Be coco oocea eacoc aaa 27 Moe paac e oea eeca opae ope cpe o acex ee opao 28 oo oepac ooeco ccee eeecoe cooece opaa cpe.

29 oe cy pa oppoa occe.

30 Haoe ocoe ao oo app ooepa.

31 o aoe oo 32 T aoec ooeco ccee.

33 Be coco ocoa pa ooecoo pca 34 apoa ooe eoea ppo.

35 oe oocepe.

36 oeoxece p B. . Bepacoo.

37 Haoe pece ooe B. . Bepacoo.

38 oe o oocepe.

39 Cpyypa ooo-paooo exaa.

40 Ocoe y ee ooo-paooo exaa.

41 Hop ppoooxpaoo aooaeca.

42 ooa aooaeca.

43 ooece caap opa.

44 Hae opyy pacea oea apeoc o.

45 Hae opyy opeee oeca co o (V.), eoxoo paae apeo oy coa.

46 Hae ypaee pacea eca cyapoo ape aocepoo oyxa.

47 Hae opyy pacea peeo-oycoo poca aa.

48 Hae opyy Bypea pacea oea caooe cpe (Se).

49 Hae opyy oe yepa opo eoea o paaooo oye.

50 Ha ae p py pae opa ac ea opaa, oyae opee peyae epaoepoo oye, eye yxye opo aoo eoea eo ooca 51 aa oa ye o aoo epoca oyca acee 52 Haoe ca exooecoo a aox eoepoca, poe ape ocep paoya 53 ae oe a epoaoe apee ocep 54 ae opa eoea opea epoae ye paoacooo aaoa ae ypo ooc ooa ep.



55 ae ey apeoc epecoo o a pacco 1-2 o e cooox epea 56 ae apaep epoax ye (M) a xapaep opee ooeo 57 ae co opae eoea M a pae ca 58 Ha ae opa x opao oy epoae o c acoo o 10 59 aa ea opoooo ae eopyeo ye 1 B/cpa Pocc 60 pee ae peeo oycx ypoe () epoax oe c acoo 50 .

61 ae oyce o oye paoax e cpec a o M (paoaco 60 300 M) 62 ae opeeee ooeco aeca poeoo oea.

63 ae oe o po ooecy aeca 64 ay opa oe coepa ooec acop oea 65 o aoe ooec acop eppop 66 ae cee oe coepa ooec acop eppop 67 Paccae o ooeco oope.

68 o aoe ooeca cepa 69 ay y oe ooeca cepa 70 o oe ooeco cepe 71 oy oec e pyoocyec ocyapcea cepa occ 72 oe o ooeco eoacoc.

73 a oo oece eoacoc coo occe 74 o aoe eoacoc eppopax oeco 75 a oeaec cee epexoa occe pcoe cocoe 76 Hae opyy pacea ooeco eoc eppop.

77 a opeeec pep eoacoc oeo oy cocae ooeco cce 78 Oe y ooy opee ooecy eoacoc eoea.

79 a ypaee ocaec aooepoc apeoc ocep a opoe eoea 80 ae exece pep coyc oe eoacoc eoea pep oeo 1 oo aya o ooex pacex ox opao c opyae x cpeo oa; yee o coxpae ppoo cpe oa, oopo e.

B ayy epaypy ep "oo" ee ee ye eee 1886 oy. o cepe XX ea o ep cooac peyeceo oo.

oee ay o coxpae ececeo ppoo cpe oa eoea cao c e, o eoeeco poo ce a caa oa, apecca papyea ca, cocoa yo ec opya eo p.

2 copec coc e op aoec oeca ppo: 1) ooeca cooae eoeo ppo yoeope cox aepax yxox opeoce; 2) ooeca oxpaa opyae cpe c e coxpae eoea a ooecoo coaoo opaa eo ececeo cpe oa.

3 ec e py opaeoo oec a ppoy eoea: exoeoe yxooe.

oac e oo aya opa (co o paco e, oopy aocc ceae x cyec pace), o ca eoe eo eo ya! 4 oco a apooeoo ape opyae cpe oocc eoe, aooe, xecoe, apoaecoe eooe ape.

B acoee pe poeoc coyec ce 5 . xecx coee. Tocece coca 40 c x ao ye. o caaec a opoe e cex cpa.

20 % acee e cpaa aepe.

35 % acee poex opoo cpaae paoo poa oe, a ap eeca.

5 apee opyae cpe (oyxa, oop ; e, a oopo paae xe poy y; o, oopy e; ooeo: pe, oep, ope oeao, e yaec, oopx o py) o poe oxoa po pocy cepoc o pax aoea xaex eapex opao, ox opoo .. Ocoeo "oooe" pa eca cepoc o oo aoea ocee o ae peoy a yyee eoeeca.

B Taoe oa u nepua aoeaeocm oeu opao xau y eme opacme o 14 em eeoo npeaem cpeeoacme noaameu 1,9 paa u cocmaa 1995 oy 1537 aoeau a 1000 eme.

Eeoo nepua aoeaeocm ooouecuu oeu ae oacmu a 11 22 % e cpeux aeu Poccuu: 343 a 100 000 umee (Taoca oacm); 280 a 100 000 umee (Poccu). Ocoeo yacmuuc aoeau pao uamueco cucme u poemopo mau. mom u paa npeuyecmeo nopaaem eme u cmapuo. pupocm aoeaeocmu eeoo yeuuaemc: 1993 25,8; 1994 30,5; 1995 33,9 eoe a 10 000 aceeu.

B Taoe paoa c cou ypoe poeu eme c aoauu omocumc empaa u ceepo-ocmoa acmu opoa. mo npo cao c pocmo umecuocmu ueu amompacnopma u pocau pex eecm npenpumuu opoa, axouuc ceepo-ocmoo acmu opoa.





6 B opoax ao a apee aocep, pocep ocep oc pacop 70 80 %. Bpe o pao poex pep pacpeeec cey opao: eaypece oa 34 %, epooec (eoepoca) 27 %, xece ao 9 %, eeepepaaae ao 12 % aoe pooca 7 %, pye pep 11 %.

B Taoe ouecmo poco om amompacnopma 1995 oy cocmauo 75,45 mc.

m/o, m.e. 70 % om cex poco amocepy.

apeue amocepoo oyxa po c amoaucmpau ocmuaem 5 no pe eecma. B Taoco oacmu 30 u 161 pynx npenpumu e uem caumapo-aumx o. B oe onacoo uu mux npenpumu npouaem ooo mc eoe.

7 apee aocep oco yepoa po apooy ey.

apo e ae eee oo aa. p coxpae copeex apooex apyo a ppoy cpey cpeeooa eepaypa ye oac a 0,5 C ae 10 e. B aao coe ypoe pooo oeaa oc pepo a 10 12 caepo. p coxpae ee ee poca apooo ea ao e oe ypo pooo oeaa oe poo ye a 10 e. Opa ae a oe ocece apooo ea oycae. B ocee o ooo 6 oo eapo opaaec yc.

8 apee aocep yepoo, peoo xopo po yee o ooooo co. Ha oo acee ya eo oa yeac a 3 %. a oaa cceoa oooo yeee o ooooo co ceo a 1 % po pocy aoeaeoc pao o a 6 %.

9 apee ooeo (pe, oep, ope, oeao) po e ceo oo oe, o ce oopoce aoa, paaax copo. Bco, o 60 % copoa paaaec Mpo oeao 40 % aeo paceoc.

oee aoa po yee ocye copoa aocepy oee yco pa ooco oopoc, ooae copo ee yec a. ooca oopoc oe ooa ee oc (oo po o 10 oo o 35 ) ec co copoc 25 /cy. Ha coe y oa yoae c pacey oy oeae.

10 Tpyo eooe oacoc pooe ape ocep ae cpa.

Pocc aae 17 . 2. Ee aceee oee 150 . .

"Bea Pocc, a ocya eya!" cex pep 24 c ap opyay cpey. 55 pyx opoo ape pe eeca o peco oe. B Pocc yaaec oepeaec ooo 70 % o oeo oeca pacaex pex eec.

82 % cox o e oepaec oce. B peyae oa oaec ea oa eyoeopeoo aeca. Bo pe Bo, oa, O, Ece, e, ya ape coee aoa, e eaa, pa opaec eeca ( o ce eoo eepoya).

B Taoco oacmu mo npuoum moy, mo aoeaeocm oenooo cucme u cucme pooopaeu nocmoo pacmem u npeaem cpeu ypoe Poccuu. Hanpuep, 1994 oy aoeaeocm a 1000 eoe Taoco oacmu cocmaua 74, ano Poccuu 64 eoea.

45 p. o cex oxoo pooca Pocc 20 . oocc eypye oc oxoa. O cpacac ecopoo aaa, a opa. ac x paeaec a ceax ooax.

oee 20 % eppop Pocc oocc oe ooecoo ec. 70 . ax cooeeceo oyxo, ace oac opo eeca, oepa oopx 5 oee pa peae .

Copaaec poaeoc cpe pooeoc . B eoce o yxoeo coe cpe pooeoc Pocc cocaa 69 e a ec e ee, e 44 aax cpaax.

Ha eoxoo o o o, o papya ppoy cpey oa, ca opaae oopoy e "cae", eae epoo oy, a oyx xa! 11 apec yxoa cpea, oopo e eoe. Pacpocpaee paoo poa caacx ye epoa c cooae cex copeex execx cpec accoo opa oec a e po pocy pecyoc, yoe e oo ea, o cao y eoea.

Paoo poa cea eo apya ce ao o: paax eoea, ae ppo, epocoeoc oc yoo yeca .. Cpac ooae "apoae ce" (a cao ee yco epoex ee) acoo epc y cepa e ccoepa pax oo, ao ay cpay. oea e x eeoc yxooe ecoe yoee pocc Pocc a ocyapca.

oea cox pacex eoce paocao ep po oecoe cepe y e.

12 ooeca ccea (oeoeo) cooyoc cooeca cpe o aoec (oe eeca ey oeco aoeco ac).

13 B coca occe xo p ee p e ooe:

eopaece eeca, yacye ececeo pyoopoe eec (N2, O2, CO2, H2O ..);

opaece coee (e, yeo ..);

aece yco (epea eepayp, aee, aoc, oceeoc ..);

eee pace, paaae y pocx eopaecx coee;

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